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Feb 9 th, 2016
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The Sultans of Delhi – One Liners Ingenuity 6

11

• Qutubuddin Aibak
o Founder of delhi sultanate and was the 1st independent ruler
o Built two mosques: Quwan-ul-Islam Mosque at Delhi and Dhai Din ka Jonpara at Ajmer
o Laid foundation of Qutub Minar after the name of a Sufi saint Khwaja Qutubuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki
o Was the founder of the slave dynasty

• Shamsuddin Iltutmish introduced Silver Tankk and Jital two principal coins
o Created Tukan-i-chanhalgani a selected body of Turkish Nobles

• Ghiasuddin Balban: inscribed Zillah or coins

• Alauddin Khilji built the ‘Alai Darwaja’ and ‘Siri Fort’

• Mohd. Bin Tughlaq
o Formulated the famine code to provide relief to famine affected people
o Also known as a ‘prince of Moneyers’
o He was the 1st sultan to advance loans known as sondhar to peasants for digging wells to extend cultivation
o He was the Delhi sultan who conversed not only with the Muslim mystics but also with the Hindu yogis
o Famous sufi saint whom he threatened to punish was Shaikh Nizamuddin Auliya
o Introduction of token currency to synchronize with his transfer of capital
o Army recruited by him for occupying Khurasan and Iraq was disbanded due to the failure of token currency experiment
o Launched Qarachil expedition to counter Chinese incursions
o His scheme of extension and improvement of agriculture in the doab failed because of the inexperience and dishonesty of the men chosen for the work
o His token currency project fail due to circulation of fake coins
o He revived the Jalaluddin’s policy of granting employment to Mongols
o He expressed: “My kingdom is deseased and illness cannot be cured by medicine….if I put things right at one place, disorders appear at another place”
o He lamented: “these days I am angry with the people and the people ara angry with me”
o Ibn Batuta commented on MBT:”his standing orders wer to the effect that prayers must be recited in congregation and severe punishment was meted out to defaulters”

• Firoz Shah Tughlaq
o Made Iqta system hereditary
o He created Diwan-i-khairat for helping poor Muslim parents in the marriage of their daughter
o He was the Delhi sultan during whose reign Bengal was lost to the sultanate
o He introduced the hereditary principle in the iqta system
o He was the Delhi sultan to make ‘jaziya’ a separate tax
o He forbid wall paintings because it was against Islamic laws
o He was the 1st ruler to have Hindu religious works translated into Persian
o New towns built by him were Jodhpur, Jaunpur and Hissar
o He has been described as “not even a mediocre military leader”
o Jajnagar was the place which was converted into “a basin of blood by the massacre of the unbelievers” during his rule
o His reign has been described as the greatest age of corruption in medieval India
o He was the 1st ruler to impose jaziya on brahmins

• _____________was on bad terms with the famous Sufi Saint Nizamuddin Auliya

• Wazir: Diwan-i-wazirat
Azai-i-Mumalik: Diwan-i-Arz
Sarr-ur-sudur: Diwan-i-Risalat
Dabir-i-Mumalik: Diwan-i-Insha

• Sikandar Bahlol Ibrahim Lodhi was founder of city of agra

• ___has made the practice of old-age pension

• Muftis : Intelligenec agents
Barid: Exponder of law
Kotwal: Minister incharge of Army
Arz-i-Mamalik: Head of city administration

• Dhai-din Ka Jhopsa was originally a Sanskrit college and temple built by the great chauhan emperor Vigrahraja Visaldeva

• Zakat was a religious tax, paid by Muslims as a charity for the welfare of their co-religions

• Amir Khusro’s real name was Abdul hasan
o He created a new literary style in Persian which came to be known as Sabaq-i-Hind
o He was a disciple of Nizammudin Auliya
o He introduced the perso-arabic ragas etc.

• Urdu: Literal meaning of the word is Army or camp
Amir Khusro: composed versus in hindavi using Persian
Sher Shah Suri: Built old fort

• Qubacha assumed independence in Multan following Iltutmish’s accession

• During the reign of Raziya Sultan started the tussle between monaychy and Chahalgami
o Nizam-ul-Mulk Junaidi was the wazir who opposed Raziya’s elevation to monarchy
o Medieval chronicler Minhajuddin Siraj (author of tabagat-i-Nasiri) describe Raziya as “a great sovereign endowed with all the admirable attributes and qualifications”
o Baham Khan and masud Khan were the two rulers enthroned at Delhi after raziya’s death ad before Nasiruddin mahmud’s death
o Her attempts to create a power structure independent of the Turks led to her ouster

• Balban strive to increase the prestige and power of monarchy to face internal and external dangers
o He stand forth as the champion of Turkish nobility to prove his claim to noble blood
o Acoording to Barani he said: “whenever I see a base born ignoble man, my eyes burn and I reach in anger for my sword”
o He organized a centralized army tot ackle the Mongols and internal disturbances
o He started colonization of Afghan soldiers to deal with the Rajput zamindars and safeguard roads
o He insisted on Sijada and Paibos to emphasize that the nobles were not his equals
o He never moved out to distant expeditions to maintain utmost vigil at the frontier
o His son Bughra Khan asserted independence in Bengal after balban’s death
o Ibn batuta and Isami were the two medieval chroniclers who charged balban with the poisoning of Nasiruddin Mahmud
o Kaiqubad and then Kaimurs were the nobles placed on throne after balban’s death

• Zafar Khan was Alauddin’s famous general who lost his life against the Mongols

• Two basic coins in circulation during the period of Iltutmish were silver tanka and copper jital
o Iltutmish was the 1st ruler of the Delhi sultanate to put forward the view that the state should be bsed on the willing support of the governed

• Alauddin Khilji
o As Delhi sultan he started the policy of giving harsh punishment even to the wives and children of rebels
o His regulations against his nobles was spy service
o Amir Khusrau was the famous poet who accompanied Aludding in the Ranthambore campaign
o Arrangement he adopted towards the conquered states of Rajasthan was “not to try to establish direct administration, the rulers wre allowed to rule on the condition of paying regular tributes and obedience of sultan”
o Regarding Malwa unlike rajasthan , he brought it under direct administration
o He ordered the land revenue in cash in order to ensure a regular supply of cheap food grains
o He realize the land revenue in cash in order to pay his soldiers in cash
o Major objective of his market control according to barani was to punish the Hindus since most of them were traders
o He insisted upon the measurement of land as the basis of assessment of revenue to make the ‘khots’ and ‘muqaddams’ pay the same taxes as others
o He was the 1st Delhi sultan to introduce the practices of dagh and chehra
o Afghans and Indians were the two groups to rose to prominence during his reign

• Ramachandra, the ruler of Deogir gave shelter to Rai Karan, the ruler of Gujarat

• Chittor under Dilip Singh was the second most powerful state in Rajasthan after Ranthambore

• All the banjaras were registered to prevent hoarding

• Pratap Rudra Deva was the ruler of Warangal when it was invaded by the sultanate forces

• 1/6th was the rate of taxation in the pre-Islamic India

• Ziauddin barani commented on the land revenue policies of Alauddin that no gold, silver tankas, jitals or superfluous commodities….were to be found in the houses of the Hindus

• Sarai-i-adl: it was a separate bazaar dealing with cloth, sugar, dry fruits, herbs etc.

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