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Feb 9 th, 2016
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The Mughal Kings – One Liners Ingenuity 7

10

• ________founded the new capital city of fatehpur Sikri

• Babar
o He was a skilled musician played Naqqara
o Introduced Gaz-i-Ilahi of 41 digits a new yard for land measurement
o Shahbani Khan was the uzbek chief who defeated Babur and capture samarqand
o Abdul Fazl remarked: Babur ruled over which did riot yield sufficient income for the requirements of the army
o Daulat Khan sent Dilawar Khan Lodi (son of Daulat Khan Lodi) to Babur to come to India
o He declared Jihad against Indian ruler Rana sanga of mewar

• Akbar
o Nastaliq was the mode of calligraphy favorite to him
o Established royal karkhana for paintings
o He reverted to the system of annual assessment because Sher Shah’s system of fixing of central schedule of prices often led to considerable delays and resulted in great hardships to the peasantry
o Changes brought by him in the land revenue system after 1573 was introduction of karoris (responsible for the collection of a crore of dams were appointed)
o Man singh and Mirza Aziz Koka were the two nobles buring his rule, who were honoured with the rank of 7000
o In protest against some reforms effected by Akbar a serious revolt break out in Bihar and Bengal in 1579. Bihar and Bengal revolted in 1579 over the strict enforcement of the dagh system and strict accounting of income.
 He sent Sant Todar Mal against Bihar and Bengal; and Sant Man Singh to deal with Mirza Hakim
o He sent an expedition to Kashmir in 1586 for expansion of the Mughal empire
o Khan-i-Khanan Munim Khan and Prince Murad were deputed for the conquest of the deccan
o He began his deccan venture in 1591 (when he asked the Deccani states to accept Mughal suzerainty)
o The death of Burhan Nizam Shah in 1595 provided Akbar an opportunity to intervene in the Ahmadnagar kingdom
o His last major military command was against Asirgarh
o His foreign policy includes
 A strong Iran, essential to check the Uzbeks
 No desire to get embroiled with the Uzbeks, unless they directly threatened Indian possessions
o Mirza Sulaiman sought to refuge at his court in 1585 when Abdulla Uzbek conquered Badakshan
o Shaikh, Ahmed Sirhindi was the Naqahabandi Sufi who had been critical of Akbar’s policies and considered the execution of Guru Arjan a notable event

• The terms of settlement with Chand Bibi in 1596 was that she agreed to cede Berar in return for recognition of the claims of her nephew Bahadur Nizam Shah

• Jehangir
o Sent Bisan Dara to Russia
o He introduced the ‘Du-Aspah’ and ‘Site Aspah system’
o Was a painter himself and loved paintings on animal and birds
o New about his marriage to jagat Gosai was that unlike the earlier marriages the bridegroom’s party went to the raja’s house and a number of Hindu practices were followed
o His main achievement regarding Rajput Mughal relations was settlement of the outstanding dispute with mewar
o He appointed Islam Khan(the grandson of Shaikh Salim Chisti) to deal with the rebellion in Bengal
o Itimad-ud-daula (father of Nur Jahan) was made joint diwan by Jahangir in the first year of his reign
o He began to wear pearl earrings as a mark of devotion to Moinuddin Chisthi

• During Bengal revolt Jessore and Kamrup were annexed to the Mughal empire

• Aurangzeb
o Was antagonistic towards miniature paintings
o He confronted a number of rebellions including jats under Rajaram and Chauraman; Sikhs and rajputs
o Was regarded as Zind Pir

• Zil-i-Ilahi: Akbar
Alamgir: Aurangzeb
Shah-i-Buland Iqbal: Dara Sikhov (he was a devoteeof Qadiri order of Sufis

• ________executed Guru Arjan Dev with charge of giving help of the prince Khusrao afte his Revolt in 1606

• Shah Jahan
o Built magnificent edifices like Red Fort, Jama masjid and Taj Mahal
o Shalimar garden was laid out by him
o He was preoccupied by recurrent uzbek attacks on Kabul and their intrigues with Baluchi and Afghan tribes
o The importance of his Balkh campaign was to secure a friendly ruler in Balkh and Badakshan, the areas bordering Kabul
o Nur jahan’s machinations on behalf of her son-in-law, Shahryar provoked him into revolt in 1621
o Sheikh Abdus Samad was appointed as chief Judge of the Mughal army by him
o His major policy shift towards deccan was that there could be no peace for Mughals in the deccan as long as Ahmadnagar continued as an independent state
o Offer given by him to the Bijapur ruler in concern with the projected campaign against Ahmadnagar was that 1/3rd of Ahmadnagar state would be ceded to Bijapur
o Fateh Khan was (the son of Malik Ambar) was appointed by the Nizamshah to be able to induce Shahjahan to make peace
o Agreement reached with Bijapur in the ‘Treaty of 1636’ was
 Adil shah agreed, to recognize Mughal suzerainty to pay war indemnity
 Not to interfere in the affairs of Golconda, to reduce Shahji to submission
 Any Bijapur-Golconda dispute was to be arbitrated by the Mughals

• Khan-i-Saman was the head of royal household

• Amil: revenue official at the level of pargana

• Lambardar: Head of panchayat who looked after the village affairs

• Atharva Veda was translated into Persian by Haji Ibrahim Sarhindi

• Nal Damyanti: translated into Persian by Faizi
Ramayana: translated into Persian by Abdul Qadir Badayuni
Rajtarangini: translated into Persian by Mulla Shah Mohd.

• Hasil was the actual collection from land

• Al-Tangha: Jagirs given to muslim nobles
Amir: Commander of Hundred
Ahadis: efficient troops not under the control of emperor

• Sawar was a mughal rank that determined the number of cavalry men

• Watan Jagirs

• Waqf was the grants for religious and educational institutions

• During Jahandar shah’s tenure the practice revenue farming of Ijara was started

• Banda bahadur, the sikh leader was defeated and captured by Farrukh SIyar

• Muhammad Shahs original name was Raushan Akhtar

• Bahadur Shah II
o Was deposed and tried for waging war against British

• Chunar (commanded the land and the river route between Agra and the east): was known as the gate way of eastern India

• Bahadur Shah
o He depute Tatar Khan (a cousin of Ibrahim Lodi) to challenge Humayun

• Humayun
o He deputed Askari his younger brother to look after Gujarat after his victories on Malwa and Gujarat
o Major cause of his failure against Sher Khan was his inability to understand the nature of the Afghan power

• Sher Shah ruled the mightiest empire in north-India since the days of MBT

• Islam Shah Sur (son and successor of Sher Shah Sur) codified laws and paid soldiers in cash

• Amils, amins and qazis were the officers working under the shiqdars

• About Garha Katanga (under queen durgavati) conquest Abul Fazl remarked: “So much plunder in jewels, gold, silver and other things were taken that it is impossible to compute even a fraction of it

• Bhagwan das and Man Singh respectively were the son and grand son of Bhara Mal

• Marwar (due to dispute of succession there) it had to be brought under direct Mughal administration

• Qandhar was important to the Mughals
o Vital for defence of Kabul
o Dominated southern Afghanistan
o To control the Afghans and Baluchi tribesmen

• Kabul and Qandhar were the twin gateways of India’s trade with Central Asia

• Jama-Dami: A record of the assessed income (jama) of jagirs based on dams

• Man Singh and Mirza Azim Koka were the supporters of Khusrau against Salim

• Bir Singh Bundela was the Bunela chief who murdered Abul Fazl at Salim’s request
o Shah Jahan ordered aan inquiry into his assets when his son Jujhar Singh arrived at the Mughal court because Bir Singh had aided Jahangir in the suppression of Shahjahan’s revolt

• Dara studied the Hindu scriptures, especially the Upanishads to understand the Quranic concept of marmuz (mysterious, symbolic)

• From the middle of the 16th century Deccan states embark upon a definite policy of winning over the Marathas

• Ibrahim Adil Shah II was the Bijapuri ruler whose daughter was married to Prince Daniyal in 1602

• Abdur Rahman Khan-I Khanan was the mughal commander who defeated malik ambar at Nander in 1601

• Chief significance of the rise of Malik Amber lie : it represented a clear recognition of the importance of the Marathas in Deccan affairs

• Administrative reforms brought about by Malik Ambar in the nizam Shahi state was
o Introduction of Todar Mal’s land revenue system
o Abolition of the old system of giving land on contract
o Adoption of zabti system

• Sultan Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah was the ruler of Golconda, contemporary of Akbar, who was very fond of literature and architecture.

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