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Feb 9 th, 2016
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The Mauryan – One Liners Ingenuity 1

16

• Chandragupta founded the Mauryana empire with the help of his Brahmin Miniter Chalukya
o Buddhist sources like Mahavamsa and Dipavamsa describe Chandragupta Maurya a scion of the Kshatriya clan of Moriyas branch of sakyas who lived in Pipphalivana
o Jain and greek sources tells that Chandragupta Maurya took the advantage of the disturbances caused by the invasion of Alexander and his sudden death in 323 B.C in Babylon
o Buddhist sources tells that Chandraguota’s father was killed in a battle and he was brought up by his uncle and that Chanakya found the signs of royalty in the child Chandragupta
o Parisistiparvan book describes that with the help of Chanakya. Chandragupta defeated the Nanda king and captured him
o Greek writers state that a treaty was concluded between Seleucus and Chandragupta, in which seleucus conceded the territories Kandhar, Kabul, Herat and Baluchistan
o He established a vast empire extended from Afghanistan in the west to Assam in the east and from Kashmir in the north to karnatka in the South, with the exception of Kalinga
o Hemachandra and Taranath says that Chanakya outlived Chandragupta and continued as the minister of Bindusara

• Arthashastra contains 15 chapters
o Arthashastra mentions a wide range of salary from 60 to 48000 panas

• Megasthenes in his book Indika gives reference to absence of usury
o He tells that the city of Pataliputra was administered by a city council comprising 30 members

• Junagarh inscription of Rudradaman I tells about the construction of Sudarshana lake

• Rajatarangini : Jaluka was the successor of Ashoka in Kashmir

• Jatakas: Social and economic conditions

• Amatyas: functioned in administrative and judicial capacity

• Tirthas: highest category of officials and were 18 in number

• Adhyakshya: concerned with economic functions and some military duties

• Mahamattas: Arthashastra uses this term in the sense of a minister

• Lakshanandhyoksha: commerce/fixed price
Sansthadhyasksha: Mint
Panyadhayaksha: Market

• Pulisanj: Public relation officers who reported public opinion to the king

• Vyavharika Mahamatta: Judicial officers

• Gudha-purusha: secret agents mentioned in Arthashastra

• 5th committee was entrusted with the work related to manufactured goods

• Bali (tax) was a voluntary offering

• Kaushambi pillar was brought to Allahabad by Jehangir
Topra and Meerut pillar were brought to Delhi by Firoz Shah Tughlaq
Bairat Inscription was brought to Calcutta by cunningham

• Major rock edicts
o 14 in number
o Major rock edicts at Mansheva and Shahbazgarhi are in Kharoshti script

• Queen’s edict is on Allahabad pillar

• Bhabru edicts: In it we found the mention of Ashoka’s conversion to Buddhism and his reverence to religion

• Justin said: India after the death of Alexander, had shaken, as it were the yoke of servitude from its neck and put his Governors to death. The architect of this liberation was sandrocottas

• Ashokas rock edicts II and XIII mention that his immediate neighboring states were those of Cholas, Pandyas, Satyaputras and Keralaputras

• Divyadana: From it we came to know that Bindusara appointed his eldest son Sumana as his viceroy of Taxila and Ashoka of Ujjain

• Pliny mentions that Ptolemy Philadelphus of Egypt sent Dionysius as his ambassador to Bindusara’s court

• Buddhist Tradition: It tells that Ashoka was very cruel in his early life and captured the throne after killing his 99 brothers
o Ashoka was the first king in the Indian history, who has left his records engraved on stones
o Rock edict XIII: It describe vividly the horrors and miseries of Kalinga war and its impact on ashoka
 This rock edict is a moving document which could have been written only by a human being as noble and as great as Ashoka
o Rajjukas was appointed by Ashoka who were vested with the authority of not only rewarding people but also punishing them if required
o Bhabru edict: In this edict ashoka said that he had full faith in Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha
o Rock Edict VII: In this edict Ashoka say that all sects desire both self-control and purity of mind
o Dharmamahamatras: As officials were appointed by Ashoka, whose sole responsibility was to propagate Dhamma among the people
o Ashoka was the only king in the history of human kind who apologized to his conquered subjects for having waged war against them and caused them misery and sufferings
o After Ashokas death his empire was divided into an eastern and a western part out of which the western part was governed by Kunal and Samprati
o Caves were caused to be excavated by Ashoka and his grandson Dasaratha for the abode of Ajivika sects
o Foreign kings who were to receive the message of Buddhism and are mentioned in the inscriptions of Ashoka are
 Antiochus Theos of Syria
 Ptolemy of Egypt
 Antigonus of Macedonia

• Pluto wrote: Sandrocottas had by that time mounted the throne overran and subdued the whole of India with an army of 6 lakh

• Yukta were the subordinate officers incharge of the revenues of the king

• Pradeshika: head of district administration and toured entire district every five years to inspect the administration of areas under his control

• Kautilya laid down the penalties against officials in charge of work shops and prison who misbehaved with them
o He said that a full treasury is a guaranteeof the prosperity of the state and it is the most important duty of the king to keep the treasury full at all the times for all works

• Artisans and Craftsmen were specially protected by the state and offences against them were severely punished

• Sanchi Stupa inscription mention that one of the carved gateways was donated by the guilds of ivory workers

• Nasik Cave Inscription mention that two weaver’s guild gave permanent endowments for the maintenance of a temple

• Seven rock-cut caves in the Barabar and Nagarjuna hills show that the tradition of the rock cut caves in India began with the Mauryas

• At Didarganj near Patna: A healthy female figure with fully developed body holding chowrie in her hand.

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