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Feb 9 th, 2016
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Early Medieval India – One Liners Ingenuity 5

12

Chronological orders:

1 Rashtrakutas of Deccan
Bhoja of Gurjar pratihara dynasty
Hindushahis of Punjab & Kabul
Chalukya of Kalyani

2 Shankaracharya and his philosophy of Advaitavada
Capture of Tanjore by Vijyalaya
Establishment of Monastery at Nalanda by King Balaputra of Sumatra
Construction of Khajuraho Temple

3 Chahamanas (Chauhans) of Sakambari (Ajmer)
Reign of Rajaraja Chola
Reign of Rajendra Chola
Gahadvalas of Kannauj

4 Paramaras (Pamars) of Dhar (Malwa)
Solankis of Kathiawar
Kakatiyas of Warangal
Senas of Bengal

5 Construction of Khajuraho temple
Construction of Lingaraja Temple and Jagannath Temple
Construction of Sun Temple of Konark

6 2nd battle of Tarain & defeat of Prithviraj
Mohammad Bin Tughlaq’s expedition to Karachi
Reign of Rana Khumba in Mewar
1st battle of Panipat and defeat of Ibrahim Lodi

7 Battle of Ghagra and Babur’s defeat of Afghans under Mohd. Lodhi
Battle of Chausa & 1st defeat of Humayun by Sher Shah
Battle of Bilgram and second & final defeat of Humayun by Sher Shah
Battle of Dharmat in which Dara was defeated by Ayrangzeb

8 Rebellion of Prince Khusrau
Rebellion of Prince Khullan
Revolt of Jats under Gokla
Revolt of Chatrasal Bundela

9 Death of Aurangzeb
Peshwaship of Balaji Vishvanath
Peshwaship of Balaji Baji Rao
3rd battle of Panipat between Marathas and Afghans

• Pala : Gopal
Chandela: Nanunka
Chauhan: Ajay Raj
Rathore: Rao Siha

• Kachhavaha: Man Singh
Rashtrakuta: Krishna I
Parmar: Bhoja
Sisodia: Rana Khumba

• New socio-economic system that emerged in western Europe after the breakup of the Roman empire was feudalism

• India during the early medieval period was characterized by intermediaries and paucity of coins

• Arabic work ‘Kalila wa Dimna’ was a translation of the Sanskrit work panchtantra

• During early medieval period, India had close commercial and cultural contacts with China

• Yasovarman was the ruler of kanauj in the initial years of the 8th c AD

• Vakpati’s famous poem ‘Gaudavaho’ (slaying of the king of Gauda) was written in prakrit language

• Dharmapala founded the Vikramshila university

• Sankaracharya established spiritual centres at Dwarka, Puri, Sringeri and Badrinath

• Periya Puranam, the 12th poem of Tirumurai was composed by poet Shekkilar at the request of Kullattunga I

• Nanniah, the telugu scholar translated the adi and sabha oarvas of Mahabharata

• I-tsing wrote about saurashtra, the men all drive their livelihood from the sea and engage in commerce and exchange of commodities

• The tirumurai is a collection of appar, sambandar and manikkavasagar

• Minhaj Siraj was the author of Tabaqat-e-nasiri

• Tariqh-i-Firuzshahi and Fatwah-i-Jahandari were works of barani

• Rashtrakuta ruler Shruva decisively defeated Dharmapala

• Sulaiman calls the Pala kingdom by the name of Ruhma

• 200 villages were set apart for the maintenance of the Nalanda University

• Sailendra a dynasty of South east Asia sought permission to build a monastery at Nalanda

• Rashtrakuta ruler Dhruva and Gopal III checked early pratihara thrust towards upper ganga and Malwa

• According to Arab merchants Chalukyas among the Indian kingdoms has the best cavalry in India

• Mahendrapala I of pratihara dynasty fought a war with Kashmir

• Rajashekhar, the Sanskrit poet lived at the court of Bhoja

• Govinda III a rashtrakuta ruler “terrified the Kerala, Pandya and Chola kings and caused the Pallavas to whither”

• According to al-masaudi, the Rashtrakuta king Vallabharaja was the greatest king of India

• Krishna III annexed the Chola empire to the Rashtrakuta kingdom

• Religions patronized by the Rashtrakutas were Jainism, Shaivism and Vaishnavism

• Cholas, palas and Rashtrakutas all have their own navy, whereas Pratiharas didn’t had any navy

• Hereditary revenue officers were the nad-gavundas or desagramuktas in the Deccan

• According to Medhatithi dharmashastra, Vedas and arthashastra form the source of king’s authority

• Bhilmal was the early seat of power of the pratiharas before kanauj became the imperial capital

• When Nagabhatta II attacked Kanauj, Dharmpala sought help from Govinda III

• Rashtrakuta dynasty is mentioned as “malik-al-muluk’ (king of kings) by the arab travelers

• Krishna III to commemorate his victory over parantaka I, planted a pillar of victory at Rameshwaram

• The hallmark of the polity of Palas, Pratiharas and Rashtrakutas was increase in number of samantas

• The Gahadavala ruler to die in the battle of CHandawar was Jaichandra

• The chandellas became independent from the Gurjara Pratiharas under Yasovarman

• Dhanga was the Chandella ruler who aided the Shahi ruler, Jaipal against Subuktgin

• Vidyadhara killed pratihara ruler for surrendering to mahmud of ghazni without afight

• Parmardi was the chandelle ruler who agreed to pay tribute to aibak and was killed by his own ministers, Ajaydeva

• Vakpati munja a paramara ruler was the patron of poets like Dhananjaya, Halayuddha, Dhanika and PPadmagupta and excavated a number of tanks

• Bhoja a paramara ruler assisted Anandpal and later gave shelter to his son Trilochanpal against Mahmud Ghazni

• Bhoja paramara was the rajput ruler who was author of books on medicine, astronomy, religion and architectures; established a Sanskrit-college, patronized scholars like Dhanapala and Uvrata

• Ajayraja built the city of Ajaymeru (Ajmer) which replaced Sambhar as the Chauhan capital

• Vigraharaja IV Visaladeva was the chauhan ruler said to have freed Aryavarta from invaders and conquered Delhi and Hansi

• Lalitvigraharaja was somadeva’s drama; also Visaladeva (himself a composer of the drama: Harakeli) patronized Somadeva

• Kalachuri dynasty was also known a katasuris, Haihayas and Chedis

• Karna was the Kalachuri ruler during whose rule Bananas and Allahabad formed part of the Kalachuri kingdom

• Bhima I a chalukyan king was the king of Gujarat when Mahmud Ghazani invaded it

• Bhima II was the chalukyan ruler to patronize the jain scholar Hemachandra and set up institutions for the study of Jyotisha, Nyaya and the Puranas

• Surya undertook the work of drainage and irrigation of the Kashmir valley during Avantivarman’s rule

• Diddas the famous queen of Kashmir in the mid 10th c. came from Shahi dynasty

• Senas dynasty claimed itself as Brahma-Kshatriyas and claimed descent from the kings of Dakshinapatha

• Lakshmana Sena, when attacked by Bhaktiyar Khilji left his capital Nadia

• Lakshmana was the sena ruler whise court was adorned by literary celebrities such as Jayadeva, Halayudha and Sridharadasa

• Deva dynasty who supplanted the Senas from eastern Bengal, ruled from their capital at Vanga

• The orissan ruler in the mid-7th c., Sainyashita Madhava Varman who performed the asvamedha sacrifice belonged to the Shailodhbhava dynasty

• Eastern Ganga were a branch of Gangas of Mysore

• Anantavarman CHoda was credited with uniting Utkal and Kalinga and describing his kingdom as stretching from ‘Ganga to Godavari’

• Gajapatis revived the feat of stretching their kingdom from ‘ganga to godavari’

• Conquests of Rajaraja were: Sri Lanka, Maldive Islands, Coromandal coast and Malabar

• Rajendra I send a naval expedition against the Shailendra dynasty to expand trade with China

• Cholas clash with later chalukyas because of: overlordship of Vengi, Tungabhadra doab and ganga country in the north west Karnatka

• __________foreign traveler commented that in Kerala, all soldiers in the bodyguard burnt themselves in the funeral pyre of the monarch when he died

• Dravida style of architecture came into vogue during the Chola period

• Pampa, Ponna and Ranna are regarded as the three gems of Kannada poetry

• Bilhana, composer of Vikramana kadevacharita and Vijnaneshvara, author of ‘Mitakshara graced the court of Vikramaditya VI

• The earliest known Kakatiya chief, Beta I was a contemporary of Rajendra chola

• Rudramadevi, daughter of Ganpati was patron of the Pasupata sect

• Tiruvalangadu copper plate inscription and the Tirumalai rock inscription reflect upon the conquests of Rajendra I

• South-east Asian kingdom of Sumatra was conquered by Rajendra I Chola

• Hoyshalesvara temple has been described as the ‘highest achievement’ of the chalukya hoysala style of architecture

• Maravarma Sundara Pandya inaugurated the second Pandyan empire

• Marco Polo: A foreign traveler to India remarked : “the great province of Malabar os best of all the Indies”

• Samanids were the rulers of Transoxiana, Khusrasan and parts of Iran during the ed of the 9th c.

• Bhima was the patron of Vastupala, the builder of the Jain temple at Mt.Abu

• Khorasan was the bone of contention between the Khwarizmis and the Ghorids

• Bhima II was the ruler of Gujarat who defeated Muhammad Ghori in 1178

• Skanda was the general of Prithviraja who led the victorious campaign of 1191

• Prithviraja moved to Ranthambhor to find a new kingdom after the 2nd battle of Tarai

• Bakhtiyar Khilji attacked and destroyed the famous Buddhist monasteries of Nalanda and Vikramshila

• Magh rulers Assam defeated Bakhtiyar Khilji

• Qadisiya battle brought the Arab armies to the frontiers of al-Hind

• Subuktgin was the founder of the Ghaznavid dynasty

• Mahmud of Ghazni was given the title of ‘Yamin Al-Dawla”

• Nagarkot conquest of Mahmud of Ghazni have been termed as his first great triumph against idolatry

• Mathura city has been described by Utbi as full of extraordinary buildings

• Kanauj suffered mahmud’s onslaught after Nagarkot, Thanesar and Mathura

• Al beruni commented: Hindus became like atoms of dust scattered in all directions

• Tomars were installed in Delhi as tributaries of the Ghorids, after the fall of Prithviraj

• Yalduz occupied Ghazni after Muhammad Ghori’s death

• Brihatkatha Kosha, a book which mentioned peculiar features of languages dreses etc. was written by harisena

• The common feature of a feudal society was that the dominant position in society is help by those who draw sustenance from land without working on it

• Parasara a law giver said that any kind of interaction with sudras are acts which drag down even the noblest person

• Salaiman a writer described the burning of queens in the funeral pyre of their husbands

• Marco Polo: says that in Malabr men and women wore a loin cloth, the king being no exception

• Regarding Brahmins Al-Beruni remarked: “They are haughty, foolish, nain, self-conceited. Stolid”

• The Nayanars and Alvars spoke and wrote in Tamil and Telugu

• Lingayats: Allowed widow remarriage

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