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Feb 9 th, 2016
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Post Mauryan Period (200 BC – 300 AD) – One Liners Ingenuity 2

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• Chandragupta defeated Dhana Nanda
o A large number of modern national highways were developed during this period including Grand Trunk road which was very much a part of Uttarapath and was later developed by Chandragupta Maurya

• Wima Kadiphises
o Assumed the title of Deva Putra which was inspired by the title Swargpulra of the Chinese emperor
o Capital was Purushpur (Peshawar)
o He patronized Mathura art and built a stupa at Purushpur
o He was inspired by his teacher convened a buddhist convict at Kandalvana in Kashmir
o His coins shows shiva holding a trident and bull

• Shaka rule was founded by Maso or moga
o Their coins bear the image of Buddha and Shiva
o Kanishka introduced the saka era

• Greek king Demetrius issued bilingual coins
o Demetrius was defeated by Pushyamitra Shunga
o Heliodorus: parmbhagvat
o Greeks introduced Hellinistic art into India, the impact of which can be seen in the Gandhara art
o Indo-greeks were the first ones to establish foreign supremacy on Indian soil
 And they were the first ones, whse coins carried the portraits of kings and their names (in the history of India)

• St. Thomas reached India during the time of Pahalva king Gondophenes
o At Begram excavations have brought to light a large number of coins of Gondophernes

• Junagarh/ Girnar Inscription of Rudradaman was the 1st inscription in chaste Sanskrit

• Hathigumpa Inscription of Kharavela of kalinga is also sources of Sangam age

• 1st sangam – Tenmadurai – August
2nd sangam – Kavatuparani – August and Tolkappiyar
Vird sangam – Madurai – Nakkirar
o During sangam age supreme court was termed as Maharum
o Panchvaram – Ministerial council
Enadi – Senapati
Orar – Spies

• The 1st event of Pushyamitra Sunga’s reign was his war with Vidarbha which was ruled by Yojnasena
o Stupas of Sanchi and Barhut were enlarged and provided the gate etc. during the reign of Pushyamitra Shunga

• Malvikagnimitram refers to the defeat of Yavanas on the bank of river Sindhu in the hands of Vasumitra

• Gautamiputra Satkarni’s achievements are recorded in glowing terms in the Nashik inscription
o He was the first king bearing matronym and this practice was followed nearly by all his successors

• Satakarni I performed the Ashvamedhayajnathe
o He was also referred as lord of Dakshinapatha

• Apart from some important dynasties ruling in post-Mauryan north India we have number of republics ruling over smaller states which includes : Arjunayas, malwas and audumbaras & kunindas and yaudheyas

• Pliny mentions that the Andhras were powerful people who passessed a large number of villages and thirty towns

• The daughter of saka ruler Rudradaman was married to Vasisthiputra Pulumai

• Rudradaman’s rule extended over a vast territory including the areas of: Gujarat and Sindh, Saurashtra and north Konkan & Malwa and parts of Rajasthan

• Manu smriti: oldest as well as most well known and has its hold even today all over India

• Fragments of Asvaghosha’s play have been recovered from Turfan in Central Asia, another famous Sanskrit play of this period was Svapnavasadatta

• Anuloma: Anuloma marriage is a social practice according to which a boy from upper varna / caste / class can marry a girl from lower varna / caste / class. which leads to the origin of the numerous mixed varnas
Pratiloma is a type of marital practice in which a man of lower class / caste / varna marries a girl of higher class / caste / varna. Such cases of Shudra-Aryan connections are also recorded in the Vedic texts.

• Women students
o Brahmavadin or lifelong students of sacred texts
o Sadyodvaha: Pursued studies till their marriage

• Yajnavalkya: It lays down a list of priority in inheritance which place wife, followed by the daughters immediately after sons

• The right of a wife to inherit, if no sons were living, has been accepted by most of the ancient Indian authorities. Arthashastra allows her to own money upto 2000 silver panas

• Buddhism became an important religion of India during the reign of Ashoka

• In 4th council Buddhism was divided into two broad sects – the Hinayana and the Mahayana
o Hinayana followed the older order and philosophy of Buddhism
o Nagarjuna propounded madhyamika school of Buddhist philosophy known as Sunyavada
Council & Place Year Patron Presidency
1, Rajgriha 400 BC Ajatshatru Mahakashyapa
2, Vaishali 383 BC King Kalasoka Sabakami
3, Pataliputra 250 BC Asoka Moggaliputta Tissa
4, Kundalvana (Kashmir) 72 AD Kushan king Kanishka Vasumitra
5, Mandalay (Burma) 1871 King Mindon Jagrabhivamsa, Narindabhidhaja and Sumangalasami
6, Kaba Aye, Yangoon (Burma) 1954 Burmese Govt. led by PM U Nu. Mahasi Sayadaw and Bhadanta VIcittasarabhivamsa
o

• The new religious developments of Hinduism was based on Aranyakas, Upanishads and brahmanas

• Brahma – The creator
Vishnu – The preserver
Mahesh – The god who eventually destroys the universe when it is evil ridden

• India’s trade with Rome increased enormously by sea as well as by land which is generally known as the Silk Route

• Arikamedu was an important roman settlement and trading station

• Pliny : he laments that Indian trade was a serious drain on the wealth of Rome, when 550 million senterces went to India each year on luxury items

• Vihara: construction with a stupa and worship hall called chaitya and monastery

• Shringaverapura: a remarkable structure of a complex of four water tanks (level of hydraulic engineering)

• Ayurveda has its origin in Atharva veda

• At taxila, the teaching of Atreya were collected by his pupils and compiled by Charaka in his Charaka Samhita

• The knowledge of Indian herbs and medicinal plants had reached the western world through the Greeks and Romans

• Theophrastus gives details of the medicinal use of various plants and herbs from India in his book “History of Plants”

• Bactria (near Hindukush) in old times became the great meeting point of the East and West

• Mauryas i.e. Chandragupta Maurya, Ashoka and Bindusara had established intimate relations with the Greek Kingdoms of the west

• Strabo – Geography
Arrian – Indica
Pliny – Natural History

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