b.      Elaborate upon major human adaptations to heat and cold. (2013)

The sympathetic nervous system directs the body’s attempts to regulate temperature by rerouting circulation and sweating
Red skin indicates vasodilation and the pooling of blood near the surface for release of heat
Sweating causes evaporative cooling
The individual reduces heat stress by lowering physical activity levels, scheduling work during cool times of the day, wearing less clothes, using fans and air conditioning
An increasing body size means several things
There is an increase in the amount of metabolizing tissue, therefore internal heat gain is greater
There is an overall decrease in the surface area to mass ratio, meaning that heat loss is reduced
An increase in exposed portions of the body (increasing surface area) also has several natural concommitants
Keeping mass constant, surface area is increased by assuming a more linear form–taller, with long, slender arms and legs
This is especially important for humans since heat loss from evaporation of sweat is greater than in any other animal, and evaporative loss is directly proportional to the amount of exposed surface area
admin Asked on August 8, 2017 in Anthropology.
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admin Answered on August 8, 2017.
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