Sep 15 th, 2015
Mains SupportNo Comments

GS II – September



Right To Access Safe Drinking Water

  • Basic Overview
    As a human can live for days without eating anything but not without water as it is a basic requirement of human body. Water deficiency can lead various health problems like kidney or bladder stones, drinking polluted water can lead to diarrhea, jaundice etc. Again without water people cannot grow crops and as more than 50% of Indian population still depends on this sector for their livelihood so water scarcity increases the problem.

  • Monsoon Exaggerate Problem
    The problem become even worse when monsoon season also does not bring enough water like this year when IMD already said that this year monsoon remained 15% less than normal. So right to access water is considered as a human rights issue.

  • Current Agitations and Demands
    The issue comes in point recently when Telangana government demanded the formation of a water tribunal for effective allocation of water of Krishna river between Maharashtra, karnatka, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. And same case is with Mahadayi river between Goa and Maharashtra.

  • Although we have Ministry of Water Resources and several water tribunals as well, but still we face such problems in India so a mechanism must be evolved to look after this matter on priority basis and sustainable irrigation technologies must be used like drip irrigation, sprinkler, water harvesting for water replenishment etc. to avoid distress due to water scarcity.

One Rank One Pension Policy

  • Current Hardship Faced by Army Personnel
    Roughly 60,000 people retire from the armed forces every year. Some retire before they are 35, and as many as 87 per cent of servicemen retire between the ages of 34 and 48. Soldiers, sailors, airmen at the lowest level are the hardest hit because after a near nomadic life in the armed forces, they most likely do not own too many assets, a home nor have an alternative income stream. They have no clear prospect of a second lease of working life either.

  • Movement for OROP Policy
    There is a movement going on by the retired army ex-servicemen for the implementation of one rank one pension policy so that they can get enough pension once they get retired as most of the army persons retires at age around 35-40 without much assets so later on living life comfortably becomes really tough for them. Recently, government has made decision to refer the case to 7th pay commission to take some final decision on it.

  • Issue of Economic Burden
    But as most of the army men retires at very young age and get pension for the rest of their life, seeing this scenario asking for more pension with time to time increase in it will increase pressure on existing GDP, it will increase debt of the country because this money is not going to give any productive benefits but is getting used for consumption purpose of people. And so government has to borrow money from some other source at high rates burden of which will ultimately fall on common people and leads to inflation.

  • Same Demand Chances from Other Groups
    Plus seeing this agitation railway employees also went on protest last week seeking same demand. So because of all this reasons there is a need to reform New Pension System, because it is going to affect the whole economy e.g. like the case of oil price increase where whole economy gets affected because government has to pay more for its import and so do consumers likewise in this case government has to pay for their pension and the subsequent deficit effects the whole population.

  • Army men are skilled, educated and are inspiration for this country, seeing such scenario asking for more monetary benefits creates a bad example for country, instead of increasing pension it will be better if government use this manpower for starting new ventures which can give employment to many other people as well. Seeking their help to organize self-help groups in their localities and taking loan for them for starting small business, taking their help for swachh bharat mission, sansad adarsh gram yojana etc. will give them a constant source of income and so such demands can be get rid of.

Rationale behind forcing government servants to send their kids to government schools

  • Current Problem
    Seeing the increasing number of private schools with high amount of fees charged by them it become really difficult for lower middle class and poor people to afford such education for their children and they are left with no other option but to send their children to government schools, where in most of the cases students have to sit on floor, with lack of good faculty etc. hampers their growth rate.

  • Scenario
    Although government has started Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Mid-day Meal Scheme to increase number of schools and increase attendance ratio, but now there is turn for quality education and so recent judgement of Allahabad court to make it mandatory for every person who is drawing salary from government to send their child to government is a good step forward which will help in several ways like
    -Better Emphasis: Government servants will lay more emphasis on the improvement of facilities in government schools
    -Better Interaction: Children from very well off family get to know about the deprived section also, who will understand the value of privileges they got and those who don’t
    -Level Playing Field: It will create a level playing field for all children for future competitive examinations
    -Improvement in Infrastructure: Our existing government schools will get strengthened in terms of infrastructure and quality
    -Monetary Benefits: People will have more money in their hands as they don’t have to pay for expensive school fees and this money in their bank account will further be used for further development

  • So obviously this step will help government meet its objectives only if it implemented in all over India, not only to a part of it. E.g. In Japan it is mandatory for students to clean their toilet and so everybody do it and there is no shame in them for doing it, so like this if every child will go to government school then it will develop at a faster pace.

Farmer’s Suicide

  • Past
    Each year more than thousand people commit suicide in Maharashtra under distress of debt. This is an age old problem going on from the british era when people were always have to take loans from private moneylenders for repayment of debt and as their interest remained high so they caught in the vicious cycle of debt-trap leading them to sell their land first and suicide as a last resort.

  • Current Scenario
    Somewhat same situation is going on in various parts of India as well where farmers commits suicide because they are not able to earn enough money to take care of their family no matter how hard they try and even banks don’t lend them loans falling in distress they commits suicide.
    The situation become worse when unseasonal rainfall destroys their crop, secondly when they don’t get good prices for their crops,
    Thirdly when small landholding farmers can’t use modern technology and better seeds which make their crops incompetitive in market or in some cases their crops attacked by pests.

  • Policy Paralysis
    Although government provide subsidies in fertilizers and various other things, have started kisan call centre, DD kisan, started soil health card scheme etc. But their implementation at such a large scale .

  • Government must educate farmers to opt for organic farming which has high demand in international market, use of genetically modified crops must be increased which can give more productivity from same field and which have better nutrient composition and more number of food processing industries must be started in rural areas which will add value to their products and hence they will get better prize for their products.

District Mineral Foundation

  • Overview
    As most the mining activity related areas are still under developed, so recently government made amendments in Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act to make provision for District Mineral Foundation (DMF) whose basic work was to look after the mining activities in such districts and to develop such districts as well.

  • Social Benefits
    For development such areas will get fund from mining companies who have to share their profit of maximum up to 33% for this development process and DMF have to put 60% of the fund they will get for the social activities like water, school, sanitation etc.

  • This, is a good step forward as recently e.g. Gram Jyothi yojana of Telangana also helped in improving the condition of various villages in the state.
  • This fund will help reducing pressure over MNREGA whose fund can then be used for other activity. Fund from DMF can be used for setting up Food Processing Industries which will help getting better wages for farmers produce and increase employment as well. Thirdly the money from corporate social responsibility fund can be better utilized through this foundation and so such districts which are currently underdeveloped can have better facilities in future.

Buddhism and India’s Asian Policy

  • The main reason for India to put emphasis on Buddhism to acquire an unprecedented weight in India’s Asian policy are:
  • Spreading Buddhism:
    As Buddhism in spreading across countries and especially among India’s neighbors so it becomes important for India to support it

  • India is the Birth place of Buddhism:
    So must preserve this culture and promote it to for the sake of cultural diversity of India

  • Friendship and Economic Ties:
    As Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Nepal etc. i.e. India’s closest neighbors are Buddhist so it becomes important for India as well to respect it for maintaining good friendship and economic ties with them

  • Is open to all:
    Buddhism is open to all i.e. it is not based on birth and it is this religion which helped many depressed classes of India to recover in early times e.g. even B. R. Ambedkar was the follower of Buddhism because it does not discriminate with respect to other religions

  • China now a days also deploys Buddhism as a powerful diplomatic tool for maintaining friendly ties with east asian nations. So it is important not only from friendship and economic point of view but also to maintain peace and prosperity in this region, because having same culture helps a lot in maintaining conducive relationship among nations.

Benefits of CPEC and BCIM for India

  • Implementation of BCIM and CPEC will help India in several ways:
  • Regional Partnership:
    Seeing the increasing regional partnerships like TPP, RCEP etc. India must also engage with its neighbors in forming such partnership for better growth

  • New Power Bloc:
    As BCIM constitutes major population of the world and has huge growth potential so India must remain its part then to stay alone

  • Improved Connectivity to North-East:
    With BCIM India can get a chance to have better connectivity to Tripura through Bangladesh and it will be beneficial for Bangladesh also because it is land-locked from three sides

  • Exploration of Oil and Gas:
    Having friendly relations with Bangladesh can help in oil and gas exploration in Bay of Bengal and thus can solve India’s energy problem

  • Iran-Pakistan-India Pipeline:
    With integration of BCIM and CPEC India will have better chances of getting benefits of IPI pipeline for oil and gas transport which is still on paper due to safety issues

  • Peace and Prosperity:
    Such good relation can help maintaining good relation and thus peace and prosperity in this region

  • Integration of BCIM with CPEC i.e. allowing CPEC to pass through India’s part of Kashmir can help maintaining connectivity with both China and Pakistan, oil supply through IPI pipeline, improved tourism, maintaining peace nad prosperity etc.

Indo-Pakistan Peace Talks

    Establishment of peace between India and Pakistan is becoming elusive due to following reasons:

  • Unstable Political regime in Pakistan:
    In Pakistan the government changes very frequently and has remained under military rule for many years as a reason there is no reasonable solution was found out till now

  • Ceasefire violations:
    Very frequent ceasefire violations by Pakistan deteriorating chances of other important talks

  • Terrorist Attacks on India:
    Several terrorist attacks on India, although Pakistan denied their responsibility, but recent revelations that 26/11 was planned on Pakistan soil and helping criminals like Dawood Ibrahim deteriorates chances of conducive talks further

  • In talks each one tries to outsmart the other instead of finding a peaceful solution together
  • Even recent talks of NSA of both countries being cancelled and even before meeting Pakistan wanted to meet various Muslim organization leaders of India.
    But it is in the interest of India to compromise for a better friendship, economic ties, most important of all for the sake of people who every now and then get killed in cross border firing and shelling and for peaceful existence of both the regions.

    2007-08 Economic Crisis Effects on World

      The global financial crisis of 2007-08 continues to alter the world’s economic scenario can be justified from following points viz.

    • Integrated Market:
      As all the markets in the world are integrated so effect at one place obviously felt at another

    • West Dominated Market:
      As most of the best technologies lies with the west economies so a slump in growth in their market naturally affects other markets as well because emerging countries now have to find other sources to fulfill their needs

    • MNC culture:
      Increasing MNC culture lead to investment in foreign markets and making them export oriented economies and during financial crisis west economies started purchasing less and hence emerging economies took a hit this is the reason why India’s exports are decreasing

    • Money lies with their banks:
      Although they transferred all the manufacturing industries to other countries but kept all the money with them as a result a bank defaulting in their country affected many countries simultaneously

    • FDI/ FPI:
      With crisis the FDI also decreased in the emerging markets so less capital now be available for start-ups.
      This is one of the reason why China devaluing its currency i.e. to maintain their export led growth rate and decrease influence of dollar in the market.

    Weak Russian Economy and India’s Defense Acquisition

      Currently due to ongoing sanctions on Russia due to its crackdown on Ukraine last year and their decreasing oil prices they are at very weak condition and India must continue buying its defence requirements from India reason being:

    • Age old Relations:
      With Russia India has age old relation which supported India many a times in UN

    • Technology Transfer:
      It helped India at a time when US was not willing fro technology transfer to India, but it helped India in developing thermal power plants, steel power plants etc.

    • Defense Ties:
      Russia was the first country to supply nuclear power submarine to India, aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya etc.

    • Other players in the region:
      It can even turn to other countries as well like China, Pakistan etc. so before they take its advantage India must maintain its friendly ties with it
      So, because of above factors India must purchase its defense equipments with Russia but with smart negotiations including criteria for maintenance and service of equipments, legal actions in case service contracts are not fulfilled etc. because spare parts, maintenance and servicing are important problems that India had to deal while purchasing defense equipments with them.

    India’s Economic and Defense Relationship with Australia

      India and Australia relationship has a good history and has very good chances for future as well viz.

    • World Wars:
      Indian and Australian troops fought side by side in both the world wars

    • Import:
      Australia supply India with valuable Uranium and coal required for its nuclear power plant and steel industry respectively

    • Education Destination:
      Australia is destination of education for many Indian students as well

    • Indo-Pacific Emerging Power:
      As indo-pacific region is growing very quickly and by 2030 will include most of the major economies of the world, so in such a condition cooperation between them will be required as both are at the extreme of Indian ocean region and so its security and stability will be dependent on working pattern of both of them

    • Economic Ties:
      Seeing increasing regional free trade areas like RCEP, TPP etc. similar organization is the need of the hour for effective cooperation and development of Indian ocean region as well.
      Prime Ministers of both the nations have already pledged to improve ties between both the nations and recently the navies of India and Australia are on the verge of conducting their first joint military exercise named AUSINDEX.

    Problems Faced by Person’s With Disability (PWD)

      The matter came into the lime light when government has stated that it will give employment to approximately 15000 disabled persons in a year or so. The challenges faced by disabled persons in gaining employment are:

    • Education:
      Most of the disabled persons are not able to get the quality education same as a normal person and as a result they remain in-eligible for most of the jobs

    • Exploring the World is not Easy:
      In some cases they cannot take the benefits because world is not as easy explorable to them as other normal people like for blind people, person with no legs etc.

    • Lack of Support:
      In the current world when there is very much competition and people are busy in their lives, they hardly put any effort to lay emphasis to help such persons, such things demotivates them even if they want to do something

    • Not a level Playing Field:
      Even though many such people have will to do something then enough resources are not available for them e.g. is a blind person want to study engineering or a deaf person then it becomes hard for them due to loss of one sense in them and audio and visual material not available for everything

    • Segregation:
      They from very basic stage made to attend different schools specially meant for such children which segregates them from same development level
      Marakkesh agreement is recently signed by GoI to facilitate access to published work to help improve the educational level. Government has already laid emphasis on establishing material for their education like Braille pad for blind people and similarly visual material for deaf people like news on DD. Special facilities like slopes in many government buildings for helping crippled, reservation in jobs etc. has been done by government.

    Can Plummeting Oil Prices Lead to Recession

      Economists are of the view that plummeting oil prices could sow the seeds of the next recession because of the following reasons:

    • Africa:
      Some African countries who are dependent on oil export for finances are finding themselves in difficult situation e.g. Ghana, Nigeria

    • Venezuela:
      In Venezuela its currency already took a big hit and if prices continues to go down for oil then it can lead to chances of high inflation in here

    • Russia:
      Economic sanctions due to Ukraine episode and falling oil prices in a condition when they have to depend on oil export for foreign exchange affecting their economy

    • Purchase Delay
      As prices are going down so there are speculations that consumers will delay purchase of items further in lure of decreasing prices. This is the same scenario with which Japan is dealing since last two decades

    • India:
      In case of India he decreasing prices are good but chances are deflation are also there

    • Falling prices along with chances of raising of US Fed interest rates will see flight of capital from the emerging economies like China which may lead to slowing down of manufacturing and lead to further deflationary trends
      So, with plummeting oil prices the oil importing countries have advantage but if continue for a long time then it can lead to deflation which is not good for the economy and secondly for the oil exporting countries they have already took a hit and the condition will deteriorate further if this trend remains for a long time. In former case consumption will decrease in lure of further lowering of price and later case consumption will decrease due to high inflation.
      Suggestion: SO currently India have the chance to reap its benefits and can make enough FOREX and keep fiscal deficit in limit so that in future India don’t have to face any tough situation if recession hits any country.
      They must start looking for better investment opportunities like in Indian market for better growth and start investing in manufacturing sector in their economy or can take advantage of tourism industry etc.

    Importance of APEC Membership for India

      India has been trying to join Asia pacific Economic Cooperation since 1993 but has not been made part of it because of its low standards in goods and services as well as because of some hidden political reasons as well. But currently seeing the changing face of India APEC is of the opinion to include it in their group which has several advantages:

    • Strong base
      As, APEC has 21 economies including China, US, Canada etc. which shares approximately 60% of world trade and 50% of global trade, so being its member will help India in terms of trade benefits and more investment

    • India’s Favorable Demographic Dividend
      APEC will get benefitted with India’s working population as in APEC economies most of them has ageing population, so India can help them with their skilled working class

    • Foreign Remittances
      India which already has highest foreign remittances will get more benefits if people will get jobs in foreign countries

    • Better Standards:
      APEC membership requires better service standards in goods and services, so such products will help in increasing India’s export to other nations as well. Plus APEC countries will support India in achieving the same
      Some of the reasons for India’s long absence in APEC are: BOP issue, non-pacific country, tariff and non-tariff barriers etc. as well as

    • India is not a part of the Asia Pacific region
    • As APEC is about free trade, some of India’s protectionist policies and low quality of bureaucratic departments, acts as a deterrent.
    • Inability to shape long term policies, due to uncertain long term political structure also poses a problem to ensure compliance with APEC’s pre-requisites
    • Several tariff and non tariff barriers along with loose IPR laws also pose a problem.
      So it’s a two way benefit chance where both will get its benefits. And as India’s population is growing and so do its competition in such a scenario having access to other economies for employment is a good opportunity for India. India in such a scenario must invest more on skill development of its human resource so that in future when the time comes it can take the full benefit of APEC membership. Along with it India must start emphasizing on new start-ups which can reap benefits in terms of foreign investment in future.

    Old Pass-Fail System v/s New No-Detention Policy

      The old pass-fail system has several disadvantages:

    • Common Platform:
      All children graded on same syllabus

    • Same Mindset:
      It creates same type of mindset of every child

    • No Care for Sentiments:
      Doesn’t take care of emotional and social sentiments of a child
      But as this system followed for several decades and gave India some of the best minds, so people are of the opinion that it must be re-introduced.
      But, this no-detention policy is the brain child of western countries and it enters India in the name of child centric education which has several advantages;

    • Care for Child’s Interest:
      It looks after social and emotional sentiments of a child, i.e. it looks after the interest of the children then to judge everyone on the basis of same set of questions

    • Supportive:
      Less exhaustive and puts less pressure on children

    • Interesting:
      Based on more learning and activity based

    • Continuous Scrutiny:
      Has comprehensive continuous evaluation system which evaluates child all round the year

    • More Enrollment:
      Chances of drop outs are less.
      Indian government must put emphasis on improving the syllabus and including more number of subjects, so that students can actually think of taking another career like sports person, musician, scientist etc. then to follow the age old pattern of opting either for engineering or medical line. Also counseling teachers must also be appointed for children to know about different types of profession possible or if possible integrate parents or expert professional who can actually go to meet students and give them idea about their profession, so each child has a clear picture of what they want to pursue later on in their life.

    Affirmative Actions and Backing of Constitution in India and US

      Affirmative actions are basically taken to take care of the deprived sections of society. In India as well in US both have backing of their respective constitutions to the same for e.g.

    • Provision for Deprived Sections in India
      In India we separate articles for SC, ST, OBC etc. provision in fundamental Rights i.e. part III and under DPSPs to look after their wages and special rights, then 5th and 6th schedule to look after tribal areas etc. shows the constitutional back up provided for them

    • US Scenario
      In US their rights are protected under Equal protection of Law implemented under 14th amendment, fundamental rights etc, look after it
      But there are differences between US and India in terms of group of people who are actually deprived e.g.

    • In US it is for black people, while in India it is based on caste and in tribal cases based on the area they are living
      Although US has Obama as president but still such mis-happenings are still prevalent there as can be seen from recent protest in Missouri state over killing of a black man by police. Similar is the situation in India where we can see such tensions every now and then as last month case in which two SCS caste people were beaten by people in UP.
      India instead of this caste politics must start reservation based on socio-economic criteria, like based on income and the environment in which people are living whether it is conducive for development or not.

    G-20 and it’s Importance for India

      G-20 is a economic cooperation forum established after the Asian economic crisis in 1999 to look after various economic prospects of 20 most economically developed and emerging economies of the world. The main benefits of it for India as well for other nations included in it are:
      Security concerns:

    • Economic Issues
      India is going to raise the issue of devaluation of currency by China and that too in time when many countries are facing economic problems because of sluggish growth in market

    • Other Major Problems
      Apart from it they are going to discuss international tax issue, youth unemployment, decreasing labor income to GDP ratio etc. and as India is facing all of these problems so it will be good opportunity for India to recommend solution for the same

    • India’s Unemployment Issue
      The forum is going to discuss measures for creation of new opportunities for employment of youth and as India has a large working age population so it will work in the benefit of India
      India must maintain sound human resource development and must laid emphasis on growth of start-ups of India as whatever be the decision of the forum it will be for the growth of economies and India can reap its benefits now only if it has both of these things.

    Bhutan’s Gross National Happiness (GNH)

      Bhutan’s gross happiness Index is one of its kind in the whole world which does not go after monetary factors to look after the development of the country. This index has four important parameters viz

    • Good Governance
    • Sustainable socio-economic development
    • Cultural preservation
    • Preservation of natural environment
      So all the parameters are centered around making the life of people better then to look after economic development for monetary benefits. Some of it benefits are:

    • Forest Area
      Has almost 72% of forest area and suitable area for animals in contrast to other countries where such area is decreasing day be day e.g. human-animal conflict in south-India

    • Good Health
      They have clean river and air, so people are not facing health problems due to pollution or global warming issues

    • Sustainable Environment
      They are saving environment for their future generation instead of turning it bad

    • Preservation of Culture and Bio-Diversity
      It is helping in the preservation of their culture and for the protection of their wildlife
      It is high time that India must also make some law with constitutional backing so that we can also improve our environment, like making afforestation a nation wide agenda to grow more trees, looking for sustainable technologies, making solar panel compulsory for a property above certain worth etc.

    Drinking Water and Sanitation Problem in India and it’s remedies

      Drinking water and sanitation are two important facilities required by all population as polluted water and open defecation causes diseases and hence unnecessary increases financial burden on state. Efforts made by government are:

    • Accelerated rural Drinking Water Program, 1972-73:
      It was basically to provide finance and technical assistance to states

    • Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission, 1991:
      It was for improving quality of water supplied to households using new technologies

    • National Drinking Water Program, 2009:
      For improvement of infrastructure, quality, supply infrastructure etc. to all households of country

    • Swachch Bharat Abhiyan:
      For providing water and sanitation facilities to each and every household, schools etc. by 2019 that is the 150th anniversary of the father of our nation
      o It aims to construct over a crore household latrines, 0.95 lakh toilet in schools etc.
      o But problem is finance and other recommendations are also needed
      o Need to increase per unit cost of latrines from current 12000 to 21000 rupees
      o Need more expert and trained professional to implement the scheme
      o Water supply infrastructure must be enhanced
      o Rehabilitation of manual scavenges with better wages is the another thing required which are mostly belongs to dalit category
      Apart from it there is a need for awareness as even after having toilets most of the people are still defecating in open saying that such practices are healthy and some due to old practices which needs to be taken care of now. For awareness the help of school children and house wives must be taken who can implant this idea better in our society.
      Some suggestion:

    • DRDO has recently developed bio toilets which can operationalised at low cost and will require very low cost of maintenance
    • The bio toilets can attract people as it converts excreta into bio gas. This will take of of rural energy shortage.
    • NREGA workers can be roped in and may even be given the status of permanent employees. This will resolve the issue of manpower shortage.

    COld War 2 or Second Cold War

      As cold war is not only about by power and finance, so with the rising China critics are of the view that Cold war 2 is building up, reason that supporting it are:

    • Silk Route of China:
      China trying to influence its presence as much as possible using maritime and road silk route to up to Africa

    • High Forex of China:
      With high Forex is trying to decrease the influence of dollar in world market

    • AIIB:
      With new asian infrastructure investment bank China has made it sure that asian economies now don’t have to deal with west dominated world bank, IMF etc. during crisis time

    • South-China Sea dispute:
      Even after opposition China established its defense zone in South-China sea which is a disputed region

    • Ties with Neighbors:
      China is improving ties with its neighbors like Sri Lanka, Pakistan etc. by building ports in their territory which will serve to complete its silk route ambitions

    • RCEP:
      Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership against TPP of US and EU is a another step forward to influence its presence
      India must not take side with any one bloc i.e. US or China because in today’ scenario where US accounts for India’s exports and China a major trading partner for India, taking any one side will deteriorate its relations with other nations as well, so India must remain neutral and keep on maintaining friendly ties with both of them.

    Problem of Teacher Education in India

      A good teacher is the one who not only teaches students but inspires them to achieve more and so having a competent teacher is required for all round development of a child. But there several problems related to teacher education in India:

    • Less Institutions:
      Number of institutions required to for quality teachers is les in number as a result some states have to hire teacher which do not have enough qualification

    • Low Pay:
      As teaching job does not give enough monetary benefits most of the good teachers has to opt for private schools or tuitions

    • Quality:
      Institutions whatever are there are not producing quality teachers which is another problem

    • More private institutions:
      Most of the teacher training institutions are under private control and so they are mostly money oriented then to lay emphasis on quality
      So because of all this problems there is a need for improvement in it like:

    • Scrutiny:
      Better scrutiny must be there while selecting teachers

    • Need of Wide reach:
      More number of government institutions and must be located in small areas as well so that people from all strata have it in their reach and can take its benefits

    • Pay Revision:
      An government must also look after their pay so they don’t have to depend on private tuition for monetary benefits and give their best in schools

    • Infrastructure:
      Seperate institutions for teacher training are virtually absent. Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya Teachers Training Programme sought to establish such institutions. However, implementation on this front has been dismal.

    • Technology savvy:
      Since teaching these days involves 3D modelling with the help of projectors and other lab instruments which may be new to the teachers itself, therefore the teachers have to be kept in line with such technologies that aid the process of teaching.
      There should be Composite Institutions providing more than one teacher training programmes, collaborating with various disciplines to create a rich environment for research and quality improvement. In order to achieve quality improvement strengthening of in-service teacher training is required along with pre service training programmmes.

    Teacher Management System in India

      Teacher management system must meet several important requirements for schools like providing enough qualified and competent teachers who can take the advantage of existing expertise of our system to serve better but it is reeling under several problems viz.

    • Policy Paralysis
      No comprehensive policy for this system hence even after having several policies it suffers most of the time due to implementation problem

    • Quality Issue
      Lack of quality in existing system i.e. it lays emphasis on quantity and supply oriented so child development does not takes pace efficiently

    • Lack of IT Infrastructure
      No use of IT so time gets wasted on other unimportant activities like data update and form fillings etc.
      So because of following deficiencies it needs improvement which can be done using following measure:

    • Poonam Batra Committee Recommendation
      Implementing the recommendation of Poonam Batra Committee to train teachers in multi-disciplinary approach which will help in improving the intellectual level of teachers

    • Effective Utilization of Existing Facilities
      Inspiring teachers to use the existing expertise lies in our system so that even with the existing system a good example can be set up and produce extra ordinary students

    • Integration of IT Services
      Increase use of IT like a mobile app will streamline the various processes like supervision, festival loans transfer, gratuity transfer etc. will be streamlined it will improve their interest in their job and so their productivity will increase.

    Inner Line Permit (ILP) System in North-East

      Inner Line Permit system prevalent in some states of North-East viz. Mizoram which prohibits foreigners from certain activities in their region viz.

    • Purchase of Land
      To stop buying of their indigenous land by people from other country or state because with time their population surpasses then that of indigenous

    • Additional Economic Burden
      They are already under pressure due to increasing population in their native community so additional population will affect their economic condition

    • More Benefits to Indigenous Population
      For effective utilization of their resources for benefit of their indigenous community

    • To Save Culture
      To avoid unnecessary acquisition of their land for construction of dam and for other development activities which according to them affects their native culture, forests etc.
      Due to above reasons they want ILP system, but there are positive sides to it as well in terms of better development, connectivity, growth, better education for their children, health care facilities etc. which is needed now a days to survive in world to afford a good standard of living.
      So a balanced approach must be followed then to strictly demand ILP system like mandatory employing of local people, and make it mandatory for people buying land to invest a certain amount on community development something like CSR etc.

    Benefits of Digital Technology and E-Learning in Education

      The scene of new India is changing and in every business or public service there is a need to use information technology as it can bring revolution to service delivery and can save a lot of precious time. Similarly, expanding concept of e-learning can help in addressing many educational changes like:

    • Interactive Study:
      Using e-learning expands scenario from black board study to videos where student can learn and have better explanation for every concept which will help in increasing their interactive level

    • Rural Connectivity:
      It can help connecting students from far off location as well which currently lag behind because in many cases they don’t have quality teachers and so we can bring improvement in them as well

    • Frequent Changes:
      Frequent changes can be made in the syllabus according to the change in technology specially in engineering studies

    • More number of Courses:
      A person will have more courses to opt for instead of just studying one so will in his intellectual level

    • Teacher Management Information System (TMIS) would be highly helpful in managing the teacher workforce. Expert-specific resources can be efficiently assigned on virtual platforms with minimum physical infrastructure support.
      So to implement it government is going to need a big database of online videos and courses so government must made it mandatory in every institution to record lectures of renowned professors to include it in its archive, plus this will streamline the application process and current scenario where most of the students are dependent on paper books, using e-learning will reduce pressure on our forests as well.

    Unearned Privileges of Civil and Military Officers

      The top level officers in civil and military services always have many extra benefits apart from monthly salary which is a matter of discussion because several critics are of the opinion that they are unearned privileges. Some of the privileges that are to be considered are:
      To military officials:

    • Military Canteen:
      Military officers have the advantage of taxes benefits while they purchase various household items of daily use from military canteen

    • Posch Clubs:
      A lot of land has been under clubs of military used by their top level military officials in many cities of India and that too at many important locations, so if they want benefits under OROP policy then why don’t such land be used to recover funds used for implementing this policy

    • Manpower Utilization:
      The military manpower is used by some high level officers for various personal purpose as well and this must be stopped because they owe their duty to this nation
      To Civil Services official:

    • Medical benefits:
      To officers of IAS they have privilege to take advantage diagnosis and treatment worldwide which unnecessary increases burden on exchequer, this must be ended because now a days foreigners are coming to our country for treatment because of low cost and so wasting many for foreign treatment of Indian official is not justified

    • Mansions:
      They always live in big mansions and bungalows built in important locations, instead that land must be used judiciously for development process
      So ending these privileges will help repairing the civil-military relations which are currently looking for their private benefits alleging the benefits given to other class.

    Bilateral Investment Treaty for Government and Investors

      Bilateral Investment treaty is basically for the benefits of investor and state both, in which the interest of investor is protected in another country where he is investing. It gives several benefits to investor viz.

    • Fair and Equitable Treatment:
      i.e. there will be no bias, so an investor can run his business smoothly

    • No Expropriation:
      i.e. no unnecessary acquisition of private property by government of country where investor has invested his money

    • Equal benefits:
      It will have same benefits as given to any other investor of any country with which it the referred country has MFN status
      With new recommendation of LCI several points are added that will be helpful to government as well viz.

    • Denial of Benefits:
      In case an investor is indulged in any inappropriate or corrupt practices

    • Dispute Resolution:
      An investor as well as government can take matter to appropriate court in case of unfair treatment

    • Exceptions:
      It make provisions for investment in education, health sector etc. hence create infrastructure in critical sector important for public as well as for government
      So, with new recommendations of LOC it is expanded further and made more comprehensive which is going to protect the interest of both government and investors.

    Problems of Caste Based Reservation

      Caste based reservation has become a boon for India as now-a-days many communities are demanding same by self proclaiming that they are economically and socially backward e.g. patel community of Gujarat, but caste based reservation needs modification because of several reasons:

    • Misuse:
      Many SC, ST etc. category people have become well off and now using of reservation by them is a misuse of policy and in their same category the persons lying at the bottom section are still very poor and deprived

    • Economic Weak People under General Category
      Many people from general category are very poor and using reservation for them will be a good option
      So above stated problems needs improvement, hence some suggestion to improve it the criteria for reservation are:

    • Income Criteria:
      i.e. following the same income criteria as followed in the case of OBC category

    • Family Background:
      I.e. looking the family background whether they have took the advantage of reservation and of they have taken it so whether it made difference in their situation or not

    • Social Environment:
      For people who have taken this advantage but still not developed due to the bad behavior of community they are living in etc.
      And for smooth functioning of this criteria the scrutiny must takes place during census and help of local patwari must be used to know about the property a family possess in their locality, only then better decision on such matters can be taken.

    Rural and Urban Literacy Gap

      The 2011 census of India shows that in 2011, 25.7% of total population of rural areas and 26.4% of total population in urban area are attending any educational institution, so the gap between the two has been reduced to 0.7% from old 4%. But as the rural India has population of around 830 million and urban India of 370 million, so the change in absolute number is more in rural India then Urban India.
      The main causes for this change or development is:

    • Improved Infrastructure:
      Increasing number of schools, colleges etc. in various towns and cities helping students to easily find a suitable college for education which previously was not available

    • Awareness:
      People in rural as well as urban India understood that without knowledge and education their future prospects will not be good

    • RTE:
      Right to education coupled with other schemes such as Mid Day Meal Scheme, Sarva Siksha Abhiyan etc. gave a boost to improve this conditions further
      Also, during precious years as India is growing people also had more money in their hand and so now they can afford education for their children then like old times when child labor is more prevalent because of weak economic condition of family.
      A target based policy must be started with strict scrutiny to increase infrastructure and enrolment ratio of students in schools and colleges to better use existing infrastructure and for their development as well.

    Importance of North-East Connectivity for India’s Look East Policy

      India is increasing its connectivity to its far off location like katra-Udhampur rail link, similarly recently Meghalaya has also been linked with main rail link. It has been said that this connectivity strategy is crucial to India’s Act East Policy as India sees possibilities to improve its ties with its neighbors.
      This policy has good potentialities viz.

    • Trade:
      As India has good trade with Bangladesh, Bhutan, etc. it can help bring faster and convenient trade with them as well as with LMCV nations

    • Better Connectivity:
      If India can afford to have good friendly ties with Bangladesh then through their land India’s link to North-Eastern states will reduce almost to one-third distance

    • Labor Market:
      India can take the benefits of low cost labor market of LMCV i.e. Laos, Vietnam, Myanmar and Cambodia which are one of the main target of India’s look east policy

    • Better security:
      With improved connectivity India can protect its borders more effectively then before and it can help in solving insurgency and immigrants problem as well

    • Bangladehs
      As India just done the historic Land Boundary agreement with Bangladesh and as it is surrounded by land from three sides with only sea side remained open to external world India has good chances of giving boost to its look East Policy taking help of it

    • Bhutan
      With Bhutan India is already in many agreements to develop their hydro projects and have good trade

    • LMCV
      LMCV nations all are in dire need of investment and technology for better growth and development and that too with some friendly nations so India is a good option for them in such a situation
      Seeing all this points we can say that India has good chances of implementing its look east policy.

    US Farm Bill, 2014

      US and EU are against the subsidies provided by government in developing countries like India, China, Indonesia etc. and US has now going to implement its Farm Bill from this year which has many controversial points which is contradicting its earlier stand on subsidy viz.

    • Production or Price Based Subsidy:
      US is moving towards production or price based subsidy which is more price distorting in international market than direct transfer

    • Already High Level of Subsidy:
      Secondly the subsidy they were already providing was more than that of India and in such a scenario adding more subsidy will distort the international food prices more

    • No Need:
      They are already very much developed and prospered nation who don’t need much subsidy support
      So, considering such points it is not correct on US part to increase subsidy further and their opposition to India in case of subsidy is not justified because India has a very big population and many of them are really poor who needs such support neglecting which will lead affect adversely.
      Also seeing condition of India where currently we have flood in Assam, drought like situation in Marathawada, Gujarat etc. subsidy becomes the only option to take care of the population.

    M.M.Kalburgi Murder Case and Article # 25 VIolation

      Recent murder of renowned author M.M. Kalburgi and various other such incidents in past and threat call to other such people has several issue which needs to immediate attention like

    • Violation of Article 25:
      It gives the right to express opinion against any religious practice the same way it gives right to its supporters

    • Violation of Right to Expression:
      As every individual has right to express its feeling

    • Threat Calls:
      It’s a violation of Article 21 i.e. Right to Life

    • Political Support:
      Such people have political support because of vote bank politics and so people like Kalburgi cannot get support of government

    • Biased Decisions:
      To avoid violent clashes government also supports such mob, then to go with the right thing
      But, this treat calls and killing is illegal and government must think after putting aside their personal motives because people’s fundamental rights are getting violated and it is a question against democracy where people are getting suppressed to raise good thoughts and deeds, as a result people in future will not come forward to such good purposes and it is nothing but turning India towards authoritarianism.

    Do CAG be made more Accountable to Parlianment

      Comptroller and Auditor general office is the apex audit organization of Indian and is independent right now, but according to recent news public accounts committee is of the view to put it under parliament control which is not a good option because of following reasons:

    • Unbiased Decisions:
      For the sake of unbiased and appropriate audit and decisions related to it, we can’t let that happen

    • Absurd reason:
      Some parliamentarians are of the opinion that parliament is the supreme body and so it must work under it, but they must understand only constitution is supreme

    • Corruption:
      Chances of corruption will increase as CAG deals with audits of many important PSUs. Consolidated and contingency funds etc.

    • Favoritism:
      As we already know that government always show favoritism in appointing their secretaries and in other important posts, so bringing CAG under it will lead to same for this position also and it will degrade the quality of CAG
      Positive aspects if CAG is made accountable to parliament:

    • better Coordination:
      May work in tandem towards creating better coordination between government and CAG

    • Better Understanding:
      CAG will also understand circumstances under which parliament takes decision and not just criticize/analyze based on numbers
      While several people are of the view that it is being followed in Australia and UK, but they must understand that what has been followed in other country need not to follow in India as well.
      If we let that happen now then in future other independent organizations will also face the same threat like Election Commission and so effective control on government will reduce, so bringing CAG is not an good option at all.

    Problem of TB in India

    • Current Scenario
      As per the figures from the World Health Organisation (WHO) global TB report 2014, around 2.40 lakh Indians die every year and 61,000 suffer from multidrug-resistant TB. The United States has invested close to $100 million in the last 18 years to prevent and control TB. It has helped over 15 million people.

    • Economic Drain
      While the disease does not differentiate between the rich and poor, it was a significant economic drain on the latter. “It results in discrimination at schools, workplaces and within societies.

    • Four TB patients die every minute in India.
    • Disease Discription
      Tuberculosis, commonly known as TB, is a bacterial infection that can spread through the lymph nodes and bloodstream to any organ in your body. It is most often found in the lungs. Most people who are exposed to TB never develop symptoms because the bacteria can live in an inactive form in the body. But if the immune system weakens, such as in people with HIV or elderly adults, TB bacteria can become active. In their active state, TB bacteria cause death of tissue in the organs they infect. Active TB disease can be fatal if left untreated.

    • Because the bacteria that cause tuberculosis are transmitted through the air, the disease can be contagious. Infection is most likely to occur if you are exposed to someone with TB on a day-to-day basis, such as by living or working in close quarters with someone who has the active disease.

    Vienna Convention Must not be a cover for rape and sexual abuse

    • Overview
      The Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations of 1961 is an international treaty that defines a framework for diplomatic relations between independent countries. It specifies the privileges of a diplomatic mission that enable diplomats to perform their function without fear of coercion or harassment by the host country. This forms the legal basis for diplomatic immunity.

    • Special Status to Diplomats
      Throughout the history of sovereign states, diplomats have enjoyed a special status. Their function to negotiate agreements between states demands certain special privileges. An envoy from another nation is traditionally treated as a guest, their communications with their home nation treated as confidential, and their freedom from coercion and subjugation by the host nation treated as essential.

    • Article 29. Diplomats must not be liable to any form of arrest or detention. They are immune from civil or criminal prosecution, though the sending country may waive this right under Article 32

    Doctrine of Shared Soverignty in North East

    • Several weeks after the August 3 ‘historic accord’ — since diluted to the status of a ‘framework agreement’ — between Delhi and the National Socialist Council of Nagalim (Isak-Muivah) [NSCN (I-M)], the contours of what was agreed upon remain unclear.
    • Implication of Shared Sovereignty
      Further, according to the interlocutor, sharing of ‘sovereign power’ would not be confined to mere semantics, and that the Nagas could hope to become ‘almost sovereign-like’. The play on words is rather disturbing. The implications of ‘shared sovereignty’ are far-reaching. It cannot be accepted before all its implications have been fully studied and examined.

    • Common Problem in North-East
      Almost, every ethnic group in the Northeast has, at different times, come up with somewhat similar prescriptions — the United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA), for example, had championed the cause of ‘dual citizenship’. ‘Shared sovereignty’ also has implications and repercussions well beyond the borders of Nagaland, not only impacting States like Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh, but many other regions of India as well.

    • After Effects
      In the Northeast, ‘shared sovereignty’ will, almost immediately, give rise to a new round of violence, especially in Manipur, and to a lesser extent in Arunachal Pradesh.

    • Precaution
      Different communities in the Northeast compete for power and rank, and an identity crisis afflicts most tribes and communities. It is essential that the special social mechanism that sustains tribal orthodoxy is not disturbed. Otherwise, it would have a tectonic impact on peace and tranquillity in the entire region.

    national Health Policy 2015

      The draft National Health Policy (NHP) 2015 admits that while India’s population growth rate has significantly dropped and the gross domestic product (GDP) has grown, the country’s health equity has not merely stayed the same but moved in the reverse direction.
      Both in Urban and rural areas it is the poor deprived people who are getting affected the most.
      ASHAs have credibly established themselves as “activists” in only rare circumstances. Certification of skills is essential, but not a substitute for compensation and social security. Greater synergy and cooperation between ASHAs and auxiliary nurse midwives (ANM), therefore, is urgently called for.
      The document does contain interesting and much-awaited interventions and shifts, yet falters—primarily—in offering a realistic support structure for that. That is, with all the much appreciated plans and end-points, the NHP 2015 suffers from a meagre budget. From implementing the urban health mission to training a new cadre of urban ASHAs to facilitating the RTH, a health budget of 2.5% is far too less. The paradox of this third national health policy is that it is self-defeating.

    • Improvement in new policy:
      – Increase in Funding, proposal to include good health under fundamental right, Ensure universal access to free drugs, diagnostics in govt. Hospitals.

    • Challenges:
      – Low funding, no regulation of private institutions, fail to redress grievances of ASHA, lack of quality institutions in this field for education, does not considering real problem like climate change, Women healthcare is centred around reproductive health, huge pendency of cases in courts, making health a FR without placing a proper institutional arrangement can create havoc

    Problem of Corruption and malpractices in PSC exams

    • CCTV:
      CCTVs will also be installed in the exam centres and the footage will also be used as evidence. And these will be inter-linked to the main office in Hyderabad where officials can monitor and take action immediately if needed.

    • Thumb Impression:
      This will not only help curbing impersonation, but also helps to tackle any future controversies that might arise after the recruitment is done.

    • Sending back evaluation sheet to candidates:
      Candidates can themselves evaluate their papers and if the paper is not valued properly the same can be brought to our notice. There will be no scope for tampering from our end and evaluators will also be under check.

    • Countersigning of Sealed Packets of question papers by the candidates can prevent question paper leakages
    • One Time Registration (OTR):
      OTR linked to Government ID’s like Aadhar. Biometric details of the candidates should be taken and it can be verified at the time of examination to avoid impersonation. This could be a costly and cumbersome affair but can bring in transparency in the process.

    India-Sri Lanka Relations

      Main Issues:

    • Fishermen Issue:
      Very frequently we hear the news of arrest of fishermen by Sri Lankan army causing loss of economic earning to their family

    • Jaffna Issue:
      Human Rights violation in Jaffna of Tamil people, where implementation of 13th amendment for devolution of more rights to Tamils has still not adequately addressed by Sri Lankan government

    • Delay to Indian Projects:
      Various Indian projects in Sri Lanka have been delayed either due to issue of environmental clearances or due to opposition by local people

    • Increasing Presence of China:
      China is developing a port in Sri Lanka which is part of their maritime silk route, hence they are giving China a chance to increase their presence in Indian Ocean
      Solutions include:

    • MoUs:
      Must be signed so that release of fishermen can be takes place without much delay
      Technology Use: Use of GPS and patrolling to avoid their presence in international waters which leads to their arrest

    • Tourism:
      Apart from treaty, policies etc. tourism can help a bit to improve ties between both the nations as both the countries have Buddhism in common so it can help in improving relation somewhat

    • Infrastructure Development:
      India can help in infrastructure development so that they don’t have to depend on China for it.

    Improvement Measures for India’s under Resourced Health System

  • Training Center:
    For improving quality of people working in these institutions and to deal with other diseases as well in all age groups

  • Wide Coverage:
    Health care centers must be informed or trained to treat with all type of problems not just related to MCH

  • Grass Root level Work:
    People who are working in cut off locations like tribal belts or in secluded areas must be given more incentive and more number of such workers be trained to reach in such locations and look after diseases in such areas

  • Generic Medicines:
    To make medicines affordable which have good impact as well, we can switch to generic and organic medicines which can help people living in rural areas

  • Accountability:
    Government hospitals must be made more accountable for their actions and non-delivery of services with strict action in case of mishappening or complaints

    UK’s Shadow Cabinet and It’s Helpfulness for India

    • Overview
      The shadow cabinet is the cabinet formed by the members of opposition i.e. non-ruling party in UK, which works for the betterment of people by not allowing to pass any absurd bills, by debating each and every point in detail of any bill, better scrutiny and by bringing a check on each and every action of the government.

    • Benefits:
      As this cabinet consists of some ex-ministers who are expert in that particular field they provide various valuable decisions related to any matter in the cabinet and so the ruling party cannot just pass any bill when such experts are working to check them.

    • India’s Case:
      It’s a very important feature to look after opinion of the people and India must also follow the same, as we can see many a times some bills passed by parliament for their private motives as was done in last UPA government. But, to some extent it is being followed in India as well by having various positions like Leader of Opposition, then their presence in various committees etc. by allowing open debate in parliament as was done by various ministers of UPA regime because of which Land Acquisition Bill, GST Bill etc. was not passed.

    Recent Survey on Children (RSOC) Report

    • Institutional Deliveries:
      It has been improved with the help of Janani Suraksha Yojana and other cash benefit schemes, but the proportion of women who had at least three antenatal checkups was not much higher and similarly proportion who consumed Iron and Folic Acid tablets for at least 90 days was very low. So, hospitals must scrutinize the health of pregnant ladies carefully and people must be made aware of it for good health of child and mother.

    • Breast Feeding:
      It is considered important within first hour of birth improved hardly 25% since last figure. So there is a need to raise awareness about the same among new mothers.

    • Immunization:
      With the help of ASHA’s, Anganwadi workers etc. the children immunization rate has been increased but is one of the lowest in the world. Awareness campaign can only help in such cases and visit of medical teams in far off areas.

    • Undernourishment:
      Undernourished children rate has been decreased but still it needs faster progress if India is to overcome this colossal problem in a reasonable period of time. Timely check up by medical teams and frequent visits is needed.

    • Safe Drinking Water:
      Almost 10% people still do not have access to safe drinking water. In this case more investment by government and measures like water linking projects like recent Krishna-Godavari linkage can help.

    • Sanitation:
      In terms of sanitation the increase if hardly of 1% per year, which needs rapid increase as open defecation leads to diseases. Construction of such facilities under SBM is a good step and apart from it well off section must also take part in it, by constructing toilets where ever they can and raising awareness among people about its benefits.

    India-North Korea relations and Future Prospects

      India has good friendship ties with North Korea with both having a considerable population following Buddhism, both are members of NAM, favors disarmament etc. Although there is some issue from South Korea side but still both had

    • Bilateral trade of approx. $500mn
    • India has helped it in dealing with food shortages in last few years
      But improving friendly and coordinated relationship with North Korea can help India in many ways viz.

    • Rare Earth Minerals:
      North Korea can provide India with exclusive rare earth minerals keenly needed for electronics industry

    • Jobs and Employment:
      India’s huge population can take its benefits and can get job in North Korea and can help India in terms of foreign remittances

    • Security:
      Seeing the increasing presence of China in Indian ocean region and increasing ties of China-Pakistan, India must increase its friendship ties too, to deal with future tensions is arises.

    • Contentious Issues:
      But, India must take decisions smartly as friendship with North Korea can harm its trade relation with Japan and South Korea the two of India’s good partners. As, North Korea is also indulged in several human rights violation issue, so India must make precautions so it does not affect India’s image at international level which can have harsh consequences for India.

    Challenges in Forming United States of Europe

      Europe already has common currency and a pan European parliament, and now it wants to create a United States of Europe, but it has many challenges which needs to be resolved before implementing it viz.

    • Cultural Differences:
      There are many nations in EU with diverse culture and making them to unite will be tough task

    • Economic Differences:
      There is a lot of economic difference between different nations and making a common state will be beneficial for some and loss for others like Germany

    • Loss of Sovereign Power:
      Each country will lose its sovereign power over its territory, which to some will not be acceptable

    • Seats Allotment:
      Basis on which the seats will be allotted to different section of people in final parliament is another major issue

    • Factional Movement and Politics:
      The people who will get power will try to favor policies for their people and can lead to violent clashes. Also, certain faction unhappy with united state will ask for separate statehood as happens in case of India

    • Migrant Issue:
      In current situation where many EU countries are not allowing entry of people from war torn areas then have to allow people move freely in their territories which is again a problematic issue, because EU nations are against it saying that it will deteriorate the living conditions of the people of their own country.

      So, creation of United States of Europe is a tough task and even if gets created then its sustainability is a question seeing its wide culture, religion, economic differences etc. which are never going to be resolved.

    Effect of Increasing Policy rate BY US

      US had decreased its interest rate to near zero level after 2008 financial crisis and as its economy is recovering so it is of the opinion to increase its interest rate. Reason why USFR want to increase its policy interest rate are:

    • Low inflation:
      US has low level of inflation and as a certain rate of inflation is required for growth of an economy so it decides to increase its policy rates

    • Low unemployment:
      US has record low unemployment rate right now and so atmosphere looks good fro it to increase its interest rate

    • Recovering:
      US economy is recovering at a good pace
      The effect of their policies will also have impact on emerging economies as well as all the economies in this complex world are related to each other. Ways in which it will be affected are:

    • Investment Withdrawal: With increasing policy rates the foreign investor will attract towards their economy and so investment withdrawal will take place from India and other emerging economies
    • Depreciation in Currency: As dollar will strengthen so the depreciated currency related nations will face the heat and inflation increase in such countries
    • Liquidity Crunch: In emerging economies it will deteriorate the investment market
      It has positive side as well as export from such countries will increase.
      RBI has already stated that it is building economy with strong fundamentals and as we already have FOREX of more than $350bn so its effect on India will be less.

    Importance of Adequate Medical Infrastructure

      India has poor infrastructure when it comes to health care sector and it needs improvement in this field because it directly affects the life of the people and is a fundamental right covered under Article#21. Importance of adequate infrastructure for healthcare sector are:

    • Preventing Death:
      For better diagnosis and preventing death due to unnecessary reasons i.e. lack of doctors, drugs etc.

    • Economic Security:
      As most of the people don’t have enough money to afford treatment in private hospitals

    • To prevent Epidemic:
      To prevent any epidemic due to some deadly virus

    • To deal with Climate Change:
      Seeing increasing heat waves, floods etc. having adequate infrastructure has become important to deal with them at times of calamity, as such areas are very much prone to deadly diseases
      Measures Needed:

    • Effective Utilization of Funds:
      Maintaining old infrastructure and judiciously using new funds to build world class infrastructure

    • Schemes:
      Integrating such things with MNREGS which can simultaneously give employment and create infra

    • R&D:
      Investing in R&D to find new cost effective techniques to build infrastructure as well as various equipments required in hospitals

    • Self Capability Enhancement:
      MoU with other developed countries to train Indian scholars in construction of expensive equipments so that we don’t have to totally depend on its import

    Problem of Corruption in India

      Factors leading to Corruption are:

    • Lack of strict and fast punishments
    • Low pay scales
    • Lack of unity in public
    • Lack of transparency in government affairs: As a result people always become victim of such half-informed things and so they have to pay bribe to get their work done correctly
    • Lack of powers with EC: Less power in hands of election commission to take some example setting steps against politicians and so such practices are still there
    • Wide Scale: Almost everyone is involved in this corruption activity from top to bottom and so people has nowhere to complain about it

      Types of Corruption

    • Misuse of power and favoritism
    • Bribes or unnecessary delay otherwise
    • Using government resources for private benefits

      Measures to decrease this corruption issue are:

    • Unity:
      There must be unity in people to not pay a single penny no matter what

    • Scrutiny:
      Strict scrutiny of assets of government employees by government agencies

    • Use of IT:
      Use of information technology wherever possible i.e. in money transaction as well as clearance of every type of documents so public interaction with office employees decreases

    • Strict Actions:
      To set example against other people not to indulge in such practices

    Severe Acute v/s Severe Chronic Malnutrition and India’s Case

      Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a condition in which children have low weight to height ratio and is caused mainly due to malnutrition along with diseases in warn torn poor countries like in Africa, where apart from hunger, diseases are prevalent and facing drought, crop failure kind of situation.
      Severe chronic malnutrition is another type of malnutrition where people are suffering only from hunger due to poverty, improper distribution of food etc. and not because of diseases, drought etc. e.g. India.
      Reasons for SCM in India are:

    • Poverty
    • Improper implementation of food distribution schemes through public distribution system
    • High prices of important cereals, food grains etc.
    • Non-availability of nutritious food
    • Calamity like floods, earthquakes etc. which impacts the economic security of people to a large extent
    • Undernourished mothers and subsequently weak children
    • Lack of awareness among people about balanced diet
      Measures needed to eliminate it are:

    • Effective implementation of TPDS using IT tools for tracking and efficient redressal mechanism in case of non-compliance
    • Better Effort from government side to aware people about balanced diet and providing protein rich food as well apart from carbohydrates rich wheat and rice
    • Provision of distribution of iron and folic acid tablets to pregnant women and medical treatment during pregnancy
    • Immunization camps for children must be increased and increase in visit by medical teams to far off areas not just to immunize but to check also whether everyone is immune or not.

    India’s Case for Permanent Seat in UNSC

      India is been pressing for a permanent seat in UNSC since a considerable period of time and recently acceptance of written discussion by UN has lighted some hope for India. India has many advantages when it comes to decide whether India is able enough for it or not viz.

    • It is backed by Britain, France etc. for permanent seat
    • India is third largest economy in terms of PPP and fastest growing economy with 2nd largest economy population wise and favorable demographic dividend
    • One of the largest contributor to UN peacekeeping mission
    • Has support of many emerging economies as well
    • It is not the only one asking for permanent seat, Brazil, Japan and Germany i.e. G4 also demanding the same
      Although, it has ball in its court, but it must not forget that out of five even if one of the five permanent member uses its veto power then it will become difficult for India to join UNSC and China, Pakistan are already against it because of bitter past. US not supporting the same openly and same is the case with Russia, so it is kind of 50-50 situation for India.

    Reason for Epidemics in India

      Epidemic is the widespread occurrence of diseases in a particular community or place. Even after so much investment and work India still facing the same problem again and again because of following reasons:

    • Poor or Low Quality Infrastructure:
      I.e. first we don’t have enough infrastructure and secondly whatever we have is not quality proof to deal with every situation effectively

    • Low awareness Among People:
      i.e. Open defecation, littering, throwing medical waste in open etc. are other reasons for widespread epidemics

    • Unsafe Drinking Water:
      During calamities most of the infrastructure related to water gets destroyed and so people has to depend on polluted water, which is another reason

    • Dependence on Private Facilities:
      We don’t have enough public healthcare facilities and so people has to depend on private hospitals which is very costly and at times of epidemics they even start charging more

    • Big Population:
      Another reason is our big population with low awareness due to which diseases spread very quick
      Measures needed to check it are:

    • Awareness:
      In people about proper waste disposal, drinking only safe and healthy water, washing hands before eating, no open defecation etc.

    • Properly checking the funds infrastructure developed with funds allocated to make sure that it does work and give service during time of calamity i.e. proper check and maintenance regularly
    • Enough Institutions:
      For providing enough doctors and nurses so that people don’t have to depend on some single sources for treatment

    • Better distribution of medicines, water, food etc. during time of calamities because after such accidents they become the hotspot of epidemics.

    Prime Minister Mining Area Welfare Scheme

      Pradhan Mantri Khanij Kshetra Kalyan Yojana is recently started by government for the growth and development of people living in mining affected areas by forming a District Mineral Fund(DMF), which will get money from mining companies and will use this money for local people development.
      It pros includes:

    • 60% of the fund will be utilized for social development of the region like school, hospitals, roads, water etc.
    • Skill development is another agenda for providing people with good paid jobs
    • Sustainable development of the area
    • Taking activities to tackle the adverse impact of mining on the life of the people
      But it has many negative as well like

    • No involvement of local affected people, gram sabhas, local institutions i.e. they have no say in their own development and government officials have been given the sole authority of development
      So, scheme requires people’s involvement for better development and its better it can be merge with NREGS so that poor and uneducated people also have chances of employment with sustainable infrastructure development for the area.

    Compulsory Retirement Plan of Indian Government for Inefficient Employees

      Indian bureaucracy is notorious for its inefficiency which is obviously an ugly truth and recent government decision to make people to take compulsory retirement for non-performing officials is a good step because of following reasons

    • Increase in Efficiency:
      People will now not delay the work as they previously had the security of job but now they don’t

    • Accountability:
      It will increase as once they will get to know that they can get fired anytime for inefficiency

    • Corruption:
      It will decrease as now more stringent actions are available for them

    • Good Example:
      Firing only few will help in setting example for others, so we don’t have to worry about each and every individual
      But, it has restricted itself to people with certain years of job only, instead it must be made applicable for all sections for best results.
      Apart from it even salary and promotion must also be made performance based to improve the situation futher.
      So, it’s a good step and must be made compulsory for all ranks government officials and by setting such example people who now dying for a government job because of its security will think about it and so only genuine candidates who actually want to serve the nation will take this job.

    Section 124A and its Criticism

      Section 124A of the Indian penal code is related to framing sedition charges against people involved in hatred, disloyal activity or speech against government causing or intended to cause disorder in public. Critics are of the opinion that it must be repealed because of following reasons:

    • Violation of Fundamental Rights:
      It’s a violation of FR of speech and expression under Article#19

    • Authoritarianism:
      It gives unnecessary powers in the hands of government which can be misused for saving their private motives

    • Misuse of Power:
      Such sections gives unnecessary power to police as well, which leads to exploitation of the genuine demands of people

    • Court:
      Even court favors the right to expression and upheld decision in its favor, so arresting people or banning internet etc. is against freedom of expression
      But, another problem is violation of fundamental rights of other people as well when such activities leads to violent activities, or ban on any activity in whole city i.e. hartal, bandh etc. so in that scenario Section 124A is valid.
      Hence, whenever such section is used there must be appropriate backing for it with evidence only then it can be laid valid and if used for private motives then strict actions must be taken against people involved by court to set an example.

    Effect of Chronic Disease on People and Economy in India

      Chronic diseases are mostly related to the absurd lifestyle of people of contemporary generation. It includes cardio vascular diseases because of excessive trans fat consumption and no exercise, cancer because of smoking, obesity because of too much junk food consumption etc. It’s has adverse impact on people and economy viz.

    • Loss of Skilled Population:
      Skilled people dies untimely because of these diseases

    • Low Effectiveness:
      People’s effectiveness decreases and so it effects both their own life as well as of economy

    • Economic Turmoil:
      A lot of money needs to be spend on health both by individual which left him insecure for future and for poor people it is responsibility of government to spend on them which otherwise can be used for development purpose

    • Destroys happiness:
      Family happiness and well being gets hampered during period of such illness

    • Loss of Confidence:
      People loses confidence among themselves during period when they are actually suffering from diseases and hence their impact on their daily life work also decreases
      So, there is need of bringing healthy culture in our society i.e. creating awareness among people about exercising every day for some time and avoiding practices like smoking, drinking alcohol, too much consumption of junk foods etc. Organizing marathons, yoga camps by collectors, tehsildars etc. in their area to increase awareness among people about the same i.e. taking proactive measures.
      Source:The Hindu, Business Standard, Livemint, EPW,
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