Oct 18 th, 2015
Mains SupportNo Comments

GS II – October


Election Agenda in India in Contemporary World

    Seeing the changing politics of country where now-a-days same Chief Minister wins election for multiple number of terms as happened in Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh etc. it is being said that it is the economic progress which is most desired by people because of
    a. Better opportunities of employment and better wages
    b. Better health facilities, water and sanitation facilities so their net expenditure on health reduces
    c. Better schools so they can get better jobs in future
    d. Effective transportation, availability of quality seeds, fertilizers etc. for their crops etc.
    Apart from it there many more reasons like peace, prosperity, entertainment etc. which makes people to vote for candidates or party which is actually looking after their economic empowerment and is not just contesting on absurd promises of “Roti, Kapda aur Makaan” because gone are those days.
    Now people are better off when we compare their condition several decades back and so their aspirations have changed, caste system is slowly weaning, but still many candidates contest election on caste norms and promising reservation once they come to power. So it is high time they must understand the need of the people and works int hat direction because it is good for every person living in the society.

India-Germany Relationship

    Germany the country which was front runner in both the world wars, although it lost the wars but it still is a very major economy of the world and obviously of European Union. India and Germany has good relations viz.
    a. Trade: Germany is one of the largest export destination of Indian goods in EU
    b. G4: Both are part of G4 and is collectively working to get permanent seats in UNSC
    c. Education: Many of Indian students still opt Germany for higher education
    d. Not a Competition: Germany and Japan are not a competition like other countries, but a good friend which maintains good relation by helping it in international affairs, technology transfer etc.
    e. Climate Change, Terrorism: Both have relations to look after climate change and with India taking its help for better technologies to decrease of pollution and both takes same stand against terrorism
    f. Apart from it Germany also helped S. C. Bose during second world war to initiate their fight against British and to help India gaining its freedom
    g. Germany is also defense as well as automobile supplier to India
    So, seeing above reasons we can say that Germany is a natural ally of India and relations must be enhanced in future as well so that India being an emerging economy can take its benefits.
    **** a) Multi-polarity: Germany in Europe is able to break the hegemony of UK and to to an extent hegemony of USA in the developed world, like the way India considered against China
    b)Peace and tranquility: By accommodating refugees and helping Greece monetarily
    c) Economic stability: While Germany stood to the crises of 2008 and still hold the European economy together

Monroe Doctrine and India

    Monroe Doctrine is by a an American related to decrease the increasing influence of European powers in American and Latin American countries, which has several principle viz.
    a. Non-interference
    b. Non-colonization
    c. Separation of powers of US and EU
    So, through this doctrine it was made clear that both will not interfere in each other territory and internal affairs, nor do they capture any territory of other region which leads to exploitation of people in the name of development. But, US itself broke this doctrine many a time like in Afghanistan, Iraq, Vietnam etc.
    India is actually following this doctrine by not interfering their neighbours affairs viz.
    a. Nepal: Helped Nepal during earthquakes but didn’t interfered in their constitution making process
    b. Pakistan: Even though Pakistan violates cease fire every now and then, captures Indian territories in previous wars India is still looking for peaceful solution without impacting peace and prosperity of their country
    c. Sri lanka: Even though Sri Lanka was included in various human rights violation in their own country of which majority are of tamil origin and another issue of fishermen, India took help of UNHRC to solve the issue
    Similarly, is their relation with China, Bangladesh to which India helped in gaining their freedom. So, we can say that India never indulged in colonization and also never interfered unless they asked it to do so and hence it is following the Monroe doctrines.

Dengue Outbreak and Current Healthcare System

    The recent outbreak of dengue in NCR and specially in Delhi raises doubt about the capability of India’s public healthcare system and if condition in nations capital is a such bad state, then what will be the condition in other areas. Dengue is caused by mosquito and every year many people die because of it. Reasons for such a sorry state of our healthcare system are:
    a. Funds Problem: Lack of funds to build adequate infrastructure to tackle such disease during outbreak i.e. lack of beds in hospital, less number of doctors and nurses etc.
    b. Pollution: Seeing the current pollution problem, where people are still not aware of its ill effects they dump their garbage in open and inadequate water system which gives breeding ground for mosquitos
    a. Losses: Loss in terms of human resource as well as their economic savings
    b. Over Dependence on Private Hospitals: During such times people have no other option but to opt for private hospitals which are quite costly and deteriorated people’s economic condition, this is another reason why people don’t go to public hospitals and they still remain in such sorry state
    Government must take strict steps for cleaning environment, public shows, help of NGOs, school students etc, will be of much help to raise awareness about open dumping of garbage and how diseases like dengue can be taken care of.

India Liberal Republic or Liberal Public

    The recent incident of killing a man just he possessed some beef in his house, same case that happened last year when a man was killed because he was driving the vehicle carrying cows and beef meat, mob killed a man in Dimapur Nagaland because he raped a woman etc.
    All this things showed that there is no way India a liberal republic or liberal public, because in it there must be some freedom or respect for the thinking for people sentiments or at least they must ask the reason behind such possessions, but killing him directly is not at all seems valid or correct.
    Reasons in against to such actions are that the people broke law by committing a crime, secondly police didn’t took any strict action against mob instead they first took the meat sample to labs, what will happen to the family of the person got killed, it create a fear among other people as well that they are not safe even in their own home, they are not free to possess and do things they like. All these things are violation many of their fundamental rights including Article#21.
    It is high time that some strict law must be formulated, so that people do not commit crime in the shadow of mob.

Criminal Justice System of India

    India’s criminal judicial system always remain a matter of debate always because of its various inefficiencies, shortages etc. viz.
    a. Under trials: Approximately 68% of the people in Indian jails are undertrials
    b. Judge Ratio: We have judge ratio of approximately 10 per million, while it must be 50 per million
    c. Pendency: There are over 3 crore cases pending in our courts
    d. Lack of Competency plus corruption: Police and other department are not competent enough to provide evidences and do other work with efficiency and quickly so that such inefficiencies can be do away with, plus there is problem of corruption as well
    But apart from this problems other issue is that the poor and minority section are the worst hit in matters of courts because of following reasons
    a. Illiterate: They are mostly illiterate and hence are not aware of the procedures of the court, so lawyers unnecessary exploit them
    b. Weak Economic Condition: Due to their weak economic condition they just cannot pay for good lawyers and has no knowledge of legal proceedings as well leading them to caught into the vicious circle of long judicial process
    There must be some NGO to work for the betterment for their section of people who can aware them about such things and can provide them with good lawyers if they caught in some criminal justice system, because government lawyers are there but again their efficiency and number are still not enough.

India’s Progress in Achieving Universal Immunization

    Immunization against crucial diseases like polio, diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, measles etc. is of vital importance to cure a child in the very basic age so that he can live a good life with good growth and sound health, which can otherwise impacts his whole life. Current state
    a. Although India currently has infant mortality rate of approximately 53 per 1000, but still there is a long way to go
    b. Recently, a news article showed that a major section children in Mamallapuram district in South India is not immunized
    c. A child in South India died after being bitten by rodents
    All this shows that although Indian government shows at international world stage that they have made many schemes like New Born Action Plan, Have Achieved reduction in maternal mortality, is polio free, but the condition is still bad. Instead of talking relatively they must work to get absolute elimination based strategy.
    We hear that India is advantageous in term of favorable demographic dividend but is we are using it effectively, just having big population in young age is not going to work unless until it is skilled, equipped with knowledge, know their responsibility etc.

Indo-German Relationship

    India and Germany have long history of good friendly relations and Germany is supporting India since the time when it was a colony, some of the important areas of relationship between the two are
    a. Trade: Germany is one of the leading trade partner of India in EU
    b. Climate Change: Both have recently formed an organization for combined effort to combat negative effects pf climate change and take proactive actions for the same
    c. International Affairs: Both have took the same stand in UN and supported each other to get permanent seat in UNSC
    d. Technology Transfer: Germany has already helped in building various important power plants, steel plants in India and further ready to help in providing solar energy related products to it
    e. History: It has helped S. C. Bose, helped in forming Government of India in Kabul, revived independence movement from time to time etc. in past
    f. Education: Is one of the destination for higher education for Indian students and recent decision of both governments to allow teaching german in India’s KV and modern Indian languages in germany will help in improving the condition further
    g. Automobiles: Germany is one of the major supplier of defense and automobiles to India like audi, Volkswagen etc.
    Apart from it Germany is not a competitor but a friendly nation helping India in its development.

Trans-Pacific Partnership and it’s Importance for India

    Trans Pacific Partnership is a treaty among nations located on the shores of pacific ocean to allow free flow of trade among such countries. It has several important points like
    a. IPR and Standards: Strict IPR laws and some standard has to be maintained of products that they want to sell
    b. Trade Amount: The total amount of trade involved in it is approximately 40% of the global economy
    c. Duty Free: I.e. free flow of products and most beneficial to US for which approximately 18000 gets nullified imposed by various nation, so their companies are the one which is getting benefitted by it a lot
    Its impact and implication for India are:
    a. Trade and Opportunities: More trade, more employment opportunity, more foreign investment in our economy
    b. Standards: Better standard products will be available in our market especially related to healthcare sector, drugs etc.
    c. Technology Transfer: It will become easier with it
    d. More Competition: More competition will be there for domestic producers and hence best deal will be available at low cost for consumers
    But India must keep it in mind while signing it that other countries don’t misuse it for dumping their cheap products because that will affect the domestic producers of our economy, so a strict scrutinizing mechanism must be there to deal with it.
    Stringent rules: Stringent and uniform rules with regard to environment and labor would make India’s entry into these markets difficult

India and Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty(MLAT)

    Mutual Legal Assistance treaty (MLAT) which India has signed with various countries like UAE along with 39 other countries and want to sign with other nations as well has several benefits like:
    a. Legal Framework: It brings a legal framework for easy transfer of evidence and other related documents related to any crime
    b. Fast Track the Process: It fast track the process to convict any person indulged in any crime
    c. Threat to Criminals: It brings a sense of fear in criminals who otherwise commits crime and get away with it easily
    So it can help in cases like that of Italian marines case where they killed two Indian fishermen, in Saudi Arabia diplomat case where he was charged with raping of two nepali women etc.
    But, it has other clause as well like the other country may deny giving such information of it is confidential or going against their law and so its applicability and credibility is remains in doubt only.

Supreme Court View on Right to Vote

    Right to vote is the result of long experience of Indian freedom fighters during national movement, who with their understanding and experience made it universal for every person above the age of 18 years. But recent decision of Supreme Court that it is a privilege and can be taken away creates doubt about the reasons that what made it to make such decision viz.
    a. RPA: SC took this decision on the view that many candidates don’t give correct information while contesting election regarding criminal cases, assets etc. and hence such person must be barred from this rights
    b. People in Jail: They have been denied this right on the basis that they are second class citizens and pollutes election process
    Seeing the above argument it is right saying that people who violates RPA are not allowed but there are various issue in people who are in prison viz.
    a. Variety of People: Many people in prison are under trials as well waiting for final decision
    b. Different Offences: Different people are in prison for different type of crimes
    In such circumstances enforcing same law on such people doesn’t seems to be a good option, and careful scrutiny framework must be there to allow at least some genuine ones to vote.

Reason for Toxicity in Food Chain

    Due to increase in pest attack caused by climate change and decreasing fertility of the soil because of lack of proper planning leading to excessive use of fertilizers, pesticides etc. which generally ends in food chain. Main causes of such toxicity in food chain are:
    a. Pesticides: Excessive use of pesticides in farming and that too in inappropriate time
    b. Declofenac: Vultures that fed on human carcasses dies because of high amount of declofenac present n human body
    c. Calcium Carbide: Use of chemicals like CaC2 in ripening of fruits like mango
    d. Chicken: Use of antibiotics in chicken for premature growth
    Apart, from it using polluted water in fields, washing such vegetables in polluted water are other causes.
    Government role in addressing this issue are:
    a. Farming: Use of soil health cards, kisan tv etc. will help in spreading the harmful effects of its excessive and judicious use of chemicals according to the need of the soil
    b. Special program for conservation of vultures, ban on import of chicken from US etc.
    But these are the problems that have been detected, actual problem can be much bigger than this and so strict scrutiny is required and more research in this field must be encouraged. This is the time when government must empower food related labs to introduce healthy practices in our system.

Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana

    Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana is a scheme started by Ministry of Finance to fund the unfunded i.e. to make available loans at attractive terms to small manufacturing, service related avenues with need of less than Rs. 10 lakh from public, rural, urban banks etc.
    It will provide loan in three categories i.e. Shishu, kishore and tarun, with each having different range of loans in monetary terms.
    Benefits of this PMMY are:
    a. Liquidity: More liquidity in the market
    b. Competition: Competition will increase hence consumers will get loan at attractive interest rates
    c. Employment Generation: More employment generation both from banks side as well as in MSMEs
    Also, it can help in decreasing the mobility of people from rural areas to urban in search of better jobs and opportunities, also by increasing the enterprise avenues chances of innovation and creativity will get a chance to grow.

If India do not become part of TPP

    a. Trade: Although it is not much affected according to economists, but still have to face duty and tax norms for exporting its products. Its member nations will get favorable terms of trade and if India is not involved in it then its products will face competition not only in terms of quality but in terms of cost as well due to custom duties, taxes etc.
    b. International Stage: Member nations looking at monetary benefits can take same stand in international affairs like in UN like in UNSC permanent seat issue, Kashmir issue etc.
    c. Quality Norms: If India get a chance to become a member of TPP then it has to improve the quality of its productsa according to international norms which will bring advantage to our economy as well which is a problem if india remain aloof of its benefits
    d. Make in India: There are chances that other member nations will provide better ease of doing business norms and so make in india will get affected.

Problems faced by SHGs

“a. No Respect and Encouragement: Given the patriarchal notions of the Indian society, women SHGs are perceived with contempt and suspicion.
b.Lack of Professional Advice: Lack of proper guidance and professionalism about channelizing the funds.
c. Quality Issue: Viable business activity could not be done on account of emphasis of quality. Thus it requires more resource and more funds.
d. Lack of Skills: Skill Training to engage in any micro or small scale business.

Lacunae in model of SHG micro-finance:
a. Equal Distribution is a curse: A need-based loan is not accessible rather a equal division of funds among the women leads to improper utilisation of funds. There is a need for focus on differential credit.
b. No Emphasis on Skills: Model hardly focuses on investment potential and improvement of skill levels of the borrowers – making credit available is not a panacea to rural problems.
c. Inappropriate Focus: Focus of this model remains on financial inclusion and fails to tap the entrepreneurial spirit of borrowers.
d. Dominance of Elites: Many a times, SHGs are dominated by the elite among the rural poor. This could lead to alienation of the real beneficiaries.”

Important features of Nepal’s Constitution

    1. Republic Nepal has selected elected republic instead if monarchical republic.
    2. Federal:- The federal structure has divided power between the center and the state. Accordingly 6 states have been formed in Nepal.
    3. Democratic Parliamentary form:- the government will be elected for a fixed tenure on the basis of universal adult franchise.
    4. Secularism :- Nepal has denounced the idea of theological state and adopted secularism as the creed.
    5. Recognition of the rights of the transgenders. Infact it went on to give legal acceptance to the third sex.

    Matter of Concern:
    a. The preamble to the constitution starts with “”We the Nepali people”” and not as the “” We the people of Nepal””.
    b. Reservation to forward castes pahadi community people
    c. Skewed delimitation of constituencies, hence more than half of the seats will be occupied by Pahadi community with less than half population i.e. unfair federal-provincial demarcation leading to unrest in Terai region
    d. Curtailment of women’s right to marry outside Nepal. If women marries a person who is not a nepali the her citizenship would expire.

Integrated Child Development Services Scheme

    Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS):
    1. Only scheme that deals with malnutrition of children between 0-6 years on such a large scale
    2. Targets proper nutrition to adolescent girls, pregnant women and nursing mothers
    Performance : It has led to reduced deaths of children due to malnutrition diseases and states like TN , Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka have vast coverage, well trained staff and community participation.

    Role to children’s food and nutrition security:
    1. Package service: Scheme provides for a package of six services viz. supplementary nutrition, immunization, referral services, health check-up etc.
    2. Anganwadi centres
    3. Provision of nutritional charts: Lactating mothers are provided with counseling and nutritional education.
    4. 5-tier monitoring & review mechanism: Government at different levels (National/ State/District/Block and Anganwadi level) is trying to strengthen the performance of the ICDS through ICT intervention, creating better monitoring mechanism etc.

    Implementation problems :
    1. Very little coverage and highly irregular supply of supplementary nutrition
    2. Exclusion of backward classes number of beneficiaries can be accommodated in an anganwadis
    4.several sanctioned ICDS projects out of operation
    5. Misplaced focus : focus not really on the age group 0-2 yrs but on 2-6 yrs
    6.Personnels poorly trained and not given requisite skills
    7. Poor infrastructure and inventory
    8. Restricted or no community participation
    9. Poor coordination between ministry of health and ministry of women and children”

EC’s Restrictive Campaign Finance Rules

    a. This will help curb the use of large amount of black money being used in elections. The revised limit for spending was fixed at Rs. 70 lakh per constituency, which is roughly equal to Rs. 2-3 per person which is less than the amount being spent by EC it self

    Main presumption behind such low prescribed amount is:
    1. It will create a level playing field for every candidate
    2. No added advantage for rich candidates

    Major problems that this low prescribed amount has led to are :
    1. Flow of undisclosed, unaccounted cash from donors and this leads to huge violation of transparency laws.
    2. Candidates giving undue advantage to people who donates money for them once they come to power
    3. Low resource of time and finance leads to inadequate interaction between candidates and voters
    4. Birth of various middleman to mobilise voters for the candidates

Importance of RTI Act for India

    a. Empowers citizen to ask question
    b. Democratization of information and knowledge as government is easily accessible to all but through e governance initiative, but there is lack of online infrastructure in rural villages.
    c. Reduction of corruption
    d. Promotion of citizen government partnership in carrying out program for welfare of people.
    e. Greater accountability.
    f. The overall improvement in governance as a result we get to know about various scams such as 2G, coal gate etc.

    Some problem still persist as-
    a. People accessibility is hectic and time consuming
    b. Multiple public information officer
    c. It has been used to stall and blackmail officials through misuse of information
    d. In the absence of strong whistle blower act and public grievance law, RTI act lacks effective result to fish out larger scams and corruption.

    a. Procedure of filing application in RTI require to be simplified;
    b. Awareness program for villager.

Reason of Failure of Democracy in Middle-East

    Countries like Egypt, Syria etc. has been struggling to achieve democracy. Post Arab spring they have run into chaos and anarchy.
    Main reasons have been dictatorship:
    a. Absence of rule of law
    b. External intervention by US,RUSSIA,WEST for vested interests and their geopolitical games
    c. Terrorism,ISIS,military coups etc.
    India’s neighborhood has been plagued by years of corruption,misrule and monarchy.
    – Pakistan has been a hotbed of terrorism,violence,suicide bombings and proliferation of jihadi and anti India terrorist networks. The unequal civil military relations with military having an upper hand threatens democracy in the region
    – Similarly, the protests,curfew,violence and killing threatens an all inclusive democracy in Nepal.

UN SDG’s is very Important for Underprivileged Sections

    If 17 crore children labourers continue to miss school we’ll miss on Education Goals. If they keep doing jobs of 20 crore unemployed, we’ll miss on employment goals, if they stay stuck in slavery in factories and mines losing their tender organs , we’ll miss on health goals.”” -Kailash Satyarthi

    2030 SDGSs are a major leap ahead, because they focus on
    1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere and not just extreme poverty.
    2.End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition
    3. Ensure INCLUSIVE and QUALITY Education and promote life-long learning opportunities for all

Merits and Demerits of declaring NJAC unconstitutional

    a. Independence of Judiciary will be maintained
    b. Low interference of executives or politicians and hence no favoritism or corruption in appointment of judges
    c. Judges appointment process will me maintained to same standard and hence more abled judges will only be get selected
    d. Seperation of powers will be maintained as enshrined in the CoI
    a. Favoritism can be followed still by Judges
    b. Concentration of power in the hands of few judges
    c. No scrutinizing by any authority of appointment issue as they themselves are responsible for decision making in such cases

Opportunities for India in Rising Africa

    a. Big Market: Population of Africa can act as customer base for Indian products
    b. Untapped Resource: Africa is rich in many minerals like Copper of Katanga Plateau, oil in Sudan etc. in which India can help for its effective exploration using technology transfer from India
    c. Culture: Both can cooperate for cultural exchange and development
    d. Education and Tourism: Students, tourists etc. can help India in terms of more foreign exchange and revenue generation

    Way to capitalize the opportunity
    a. More investment in African market for effective utilization of resources
    b. MoUs with different countries for culture exchange, tourism development, student exchange programs etc.
    c. Better visa approval process

Should Civil Society be included in Appointment of Key Constitutional Posts

    a. People’s choice, better scrutiny etc.
    b. Better scrutiny by government
    c. Reduced conflicts
    a. Time consuming which will lead to delay
    b. Chances of error: As general public is not well versed with the requirements of such important posts”

Should we made the power of judicial review dependent on parliament

    a. It is basically to scrutinize the law made by parliament and so their interference in any form will create doubt about the credibility of final decision
    b. It will influence the genuine decision making power of judiciary and so politicians will always mould the decision in their favor
    So, this wasa the reason why SC strike decalared NJAC unconstitutional and void.

Do superiority of judiciary in appointments important for independence of judiciary

    Yes beause of following reasons:
    a. For non-interference and influence of politics
    b. For selecting the best candidate for such crucial post
    c. To maintain credibility and accountability in their decisions
    c. To preserve the status of courts which from time to time takes various important decisions
    Demerits includes:
    a. Concentration of power in the hands of judges
    b. Judges can show favoritism to their favorite candidate etc.

India Moving from Poverty Line to determining beneficiaries of welfare entitlements based on SECC

    Current poverty line is determined in terms of money by including all the important articles that is important for living in a basket and then estimating its monetary value.
    But our poverty line is not inclusive and so government is looking forward to determine beneficiaries of welfare schemes based on SECC.
    Positive implications of it are:
    a. It covers various dimensions and so can better eliminate undeserved beneficiaries with its automatic exclusion criteria
    b. This data is new and hence more reliable
    c. Is more effective as it takes caste and other social aspects as well in identifying beneficiaries apart from economic aspects
    d. The government will decide cut-off to exclude people based on consultation with various experts and stakeholders
    a. It does not take calorie intake part and so whole malnutrition angle is missing
    b. Amenities like telephone connection, vehicles etc. are included in exclusion criteria that can exclude some group of deprieved people
    c. Can be used by politicians to put forth their interest
    d. Is contrained to rural areas i.e limited geograhical extent”

Effectiveness of SC and ST Act

    “SC and ST (Prevention of Atrocities Act) Act, 1989 was enacted to prevent atrocities and discrimination against such deprieved sections and if something happens then helping them getting their due rights. It has done many important works viz.
    a. Special Courts: To deal with cases realting to atrocities on SC’s and ST’s
    b. Punishment: By fortfeiture of property of person responsible for such acts as well as punishment for public servants if they willfully neglects their duty
    But it also proved to be inadequate on several fronts:
    a. No Strictness From Police: As they mostly register cases under normal provisions of IPC then under strict laws of POA Act
    b. Low Conviction rate due to delay in judicial processes, sometimes due to use of muscle power etc.
    c. Lack of awareness: SCs and STs are not fully aware of their rights
    d. Lack of Commitment: From politicians, local leaders, police etc. to upheld such laws
    Aprt from it various fundamental rights also has provisions for special protection to such deprieved sections, but their effective implementation is lacking.
    So, awareness campaigns with the help of NGOs to educate not only SCs, STs etc. but also of general category people to not misbehave with such people is the need of the hour.”

India and Africa stand on terrorism, piracy in Ocean, climate change etc.

    “a. Terrorism: Boko haram is a threat in Africa and recently it announced its affiliation with ISIS which is a matter of concern for India as well
    In case of terrorism both can share their experiences of how to tackle such issues and helping each other in avoiding money launderng which finds its way to fund these violent activities
    b. Pirates: Pirates of Somalia can be best tackled by their combined efforts in Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean which their main area of influence
    c. Climate Change: Both have same stand in this issue with both supporting CBDR agenda as they are emerging economies
    d. Drug Trafficking: Recent news that a lot of drugs getting supplied to various parts of India through Bangalore came from African economies, so with strict vigilance it can be taken care of
    Apart, from it both went in favor of increasing permanent seat number in UNSC, have bilateral grounpings like IBSA, BRICS etc. for better trade and relationships.
    More joing military exercises, student exchange programs, JV in training various personnels etc. can help in improving ties and in tackling various issues effectively.”

Afghanistan crisis and influence of it’s neighbours like India, Russia and Iran

    “a. India: India is actually helping Afghanistan by investing $2 billion in their economy for reconstruction in development for a peaceful Afghanistan which is good for both India and other neighboring countries
    b. Russia: Is on the verge of investing in Afghanistan as it’s sort of a gateway for Russia to South
    c. Iran: Iran recently got freed from sanctions and seeing the increasing threat from ISIS, illicit drugs smuggling in its eastern border etc. are a matter of concern for it
    d. US: Is still active in Afghanistan and seeing the increasing tension from Taliban it has changed its decision to fully evacuate its troops from Afghanistan.”

Be the first to post a comment.

Add a comment