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Oct 18 th, 2015
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GS I – October

60

Problems in SDGs

    Sustainable developmental goals are successor of millennium developmental goals and are valid for fifteen years from 2015 to upto 2030, which has a total of 17 targets against 8 of MDGs. But critics are of the opinion that they has some serious problems like
    a. Too Many: There are 17 goals, with over 300 indicators and 169 sub targets making it too wide to cover
    b. Too Vague: They have just defined the goal with no required planning to achieve it
    c. Only Reduction Targets: In clean water delivery goal they have just said that there is a need to reduce the amount of waste that is actually getting dumped in the river and not completely prohibiting it
    d. Indicator Problems: There are too many indicators and for some they have already said that their monitoring is difficult like in the case of monitoring river pollution
    So although they have included a number of goals related to water, sanitation, climate change etc. but planning to effectively implement it and achieve it is still missing.
    It is going to require a team of experts who can actual make a plan for implementation and ways to achieve by letting people know about the best practices going in around the world and helping them in getting the same so that the same result can be seen in other countries as well.

Swachch Bharat Mission Performance

    Swachh Bharat Mission has recently completed its first year and in one year government has done a lot to implement it and allocated funds for the same, but it still has many problems as expressed by various reports viz.
    a. Private Scrutiny: There is no government organization to monitor and scrutinize it
    b. Low Funding: The amount of money allotted for latrines is around Rs. 12, 000 but actual construction cost is Rs. 22, 000 leading to low standard construction
    c. Lack of Awareness: In people and hence they still choose to opt for open defeacation i.e. they are still not aware about its effects and necessity
    d. Still there are a lot of houses who are out of its reach
    e. Due to pressure from government in some places the number has been exaggerated, but in actual less number of constructions took place
    So there is a need of awareness and more R&D to construct the same infrastructure in less cost, so that it will be viable for people to construct it plus they use it as well.
    Help of NGOs, women members of family etc. will be of great importance in spreading this message specially taking help of local activists who have knowledge of local vernacular languages.
    Achievements:
    1. SBA took the massive campaign on the issue of “Open defecation”.
    2. Union Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation claims that it has built around 80 lakh toilets so far.
    3. The Ministry of Railways has built bio-toilets for train coaches
    4. Social service organizations (Sulabh) is working with nodal agencies for better results

Similarities in Thinking of Gandhiji and Deen Dayal Upadhayay

    Mahatma Gandhi the father of our nation who is known for his special tactics to protest and Deen Dayal Upadhyay one of the prominent economist, leader and founder of Jan Sangh had many similarities like
    a. Ahimsa: Both are against the violence for the protest, instead they are supporter of non-violence for spreading their message of their stand against suppression
    b. Religion: Both have almost same opinion of religion basically to unite people and for their ethical values but not to utilize it for creating divide
    c. Village as Base: Both are of the opinion that real India lies in village and for the holistic development and success of any movement their participation is very much required i.e. both of them wanted to convert India into a decentralized and self reliant economy with village as base
    But as DDU is more of a practical kind who believe in the theory of the survival of the fittest i.e. who says that philosophy can help in building values and ideals but cannot build the whole society which they aspire to create.

Structural Violence in India

    Structural violence is the violence originated due to structural differences present in our society i.e. caste system, gender discrimination etc. It has some very bad consequences like
    a. Violence leads to loss both in terms of life and property
    b. Insecurity among people, who lives life in fear
    c. Hampers the proper growth of such people because of exploitation and discrimination.
    It is said that it is being normalized in India, but is still prevalent in rural areas e..g last month some women from lower caste were punished just because they entered in temple which according to upper caste people belongs to them. But if it is normalized then it merits like
    a. Better growth opportunities
    b. Conducive environment for development
    c. Equality in every field etc. will help in their holistic development
    To fight such problems we need to follow a multi-disciplinary approach i.e.
    a. Help of NGOs, activits, children etc. to spread the bad effect of such practices
    b. Making people to think logically that there is no such thing like impure blood or caste
    c. Strict actions against people who practice it
    So it is going to be a long term solution which is going to require the help of each and every individual only then we can end this practice and help people a good life, which will help in the development of their own family as well as of our country.

Importance of Andaman and Nicobar Island for India

    Andaman and Nicobar is one of the seven Union territory of India, having a large population of tribal groups, surrounded by water can be called as “unsinkable aircraft carrier of India” because of its strategic location and history it played viz.
    a. WWII: During World War II Japan was using it as a strategic location to plan and implement its efforts to capture India
    b. Defense: Due to its strategic location it is of vital importance for India to have idea about activities of their neighboring countries and take proactive actions in case of any discrepancy
    c. Nearness: It is very near to Malacca strait which is of very vital importance seeing the amount of cargo and oil ships taking this route for transport
    d. Also it is near to Myanmar, hence is important from trade point of view as well
    e. Calamity Support: In times of calamity it can prove to a major focal point for relief work e.g. has already proved in case of Tsunami, Malacca oil spill, MH370 search operation etc,
    f. Joint Drill: Is important from joint drill point of view as well
    Hence, from above reasons we can see its importance for India and reason for it’s such a name. But it is facing problems like deforestation, species destruction etc. so it is in need of investment and research for improving its conditions and maintaining its natural habitat, so India must lay more emphasis on it and if possible then must start a University in there so that researchers can go there and can work for it betterment.

Effect of Climate Change on Coastal Cities of India

    Climate change is a very important issue now-a-days which is going to affect every region whether it will be permafrost, inward continents or coastal areas. The major problems that coastal areas will face are:
    a. Evaporation: Increase in evaporation from existing water resources because of increasing temperature
    b. Flood and Aquifers Pollution: Due to increasing sea level the water flow gradient will change and hence will affect aquifers because of backflow of sea water
    c. Ocean Acidification: It is another major issue which will hamper the bio-diversity of sea, disturbing food chain normal ecosystem etc.
    d. Sudden Rainfall: this leads to less water recharge into groundwater
    e. Coral reefs (imp for fishing) located in gulf of kutch, gulf of mannar etc. will definitely get affected due to raise in sea temperature.
    f. Increasing frequency and intensity of cyclone
    g. Heavy windstorm and lethal rain causing floods
    In such condition there is a need for choosing techniques that can actually prohibit increasing threats because of climate change like
    a. Rooftop Water Harvesting for efficient water usage
    b. Use of drip irrigation in agriculture to prevent water wastage
    c. Shelter belt near oceans to act against floods, winds etc.
    d. Use of solar panels of possible above water resources to avoid evaporation
    e. Increasing afforestation which will act as carbon sink

Economic Growth and Poverty

    Economic growth is the growth in gross domestic product of a country which alone cannot tell whether reduction in poverty is also at the same mark, but it has some good impacts on poverty like
    a. Employment: It brings with a lot of employment opportunities
    b. More technology: Hence, many things which were in past were costly now available at low cost i.e. mass production reduces cost
    c. Better Connectivity: It helps in better trade among people i.e. they can easily sell their product at different places and in between creates jobs for people as well
    But it has some negative prospects as well like
    a. Concentration of Wealth: In most of time the money gets accumulated in few hands hence income distribution inequality increases
    b. Inclusive: Is not inclusive development most of the time as happens in India and so still a big section remain deprived of its benefits
    c. Low Wage Employment: The wages that one is getting or increase in his/her wages is less than inflation of the country
    So unless until the wages one is getting is at par with the current inflation i.e. people in informal sector are mostly affected due to it and inclusive development is not taking place, we cannot say that economic growth reduces poverty and hence with economic growth emphasis must be on increase in institutionalized employment i.e. which follow certain rules necessary for employment.

Hindu-German Conspiracy of Early 20th c.

    The relation between India and Germany shares a long history since the first few decades of 20th century when Germany was used to be one of the leading power of Europe and India was a colony. Germany tried to help India in many ways which is called as Hindu-German conspiracy viz.
    a. Arms Support: Germany used to smuggle the arms from America and supply it to Asians and Hindus to continue their effort for independence
    b. Government in Kabul: They helped in forming a government of India in Kabul as a way to organize military with the help of Afghani soldiers to attack on the North Western frontier of India enhanced by mutiny from other side to help India getting its freedom, but it was not as successful as though but it helped in achieving freedom for Afghanistan
    c. Support for S. C. Bose: It helped S. C. Bose in forming the strategy to launch against British army in India, but because of ongoing tensions in their own region they could not supported it for long
    So, this were some of the crucial steps taken by Germany to help India although it was not that much pronounced but helped in continuing the movement in India live for a long period of time and even today both has good relations.
    Since the beginning of war, Indian population from US, Canada, and Germany, headed by the Berlin Committee and the Ghadar Party, attempted to trigger insurrections in India on the lines of the 1857 uprising with Irish Republican, German and Turkish help in a massive conspiracy.

Surat – The hub of Diamond Industry

    Surat the coastal city in the state of Gujarat is the diamond manufacturing hub not only if India, but it manufactures 95% of all diamonds processed in the world. The factors that have led to successful flourishing of this industry in here are:
    a. History: It has a history of trading with this business since old times and some is being passed on from generation to generation in the community
    b. Economic Benefits: It has huge profit and currently has business of 1000s of crores making it a profitable business and hence a sound economic base foe expansion and keep business going
    c. Employment and Training: It provides employment to a major population which encourages it further to lay emphasis on it and problem of training other workers in need is also not a problem
    d. Professionalism: Even after very less formal education they are highly professional, works with unity and integrity helping them in maintaining monopoly in this market
    Although, the market is sustaining well but the recent decision of forming big bourse needs them to change their working methods so that effective trading of diamonds can takes place, whereas local merchants are of the opinion that they cannot change their cultural methods which have developed over a period of time.
    Government can make available expert advice to them to make trade more profitable and make favorable policies for them as it can provide a good source of FOREX for India.

Impact of Climate Change on Flora and Fauna

    Recent change seen in the climate is the increase in temperature of different parts of earth because of green house effects caused by rising green house gases in our atmosphere. It has affected our flora and fauna in many ways viz.
    a. Movement: Many warm water fishes have moved northwards as in ganga river, in west coast as well where fishes moved from kerala towards Gujarat in search of conducive temperatures for growth
    b. Trees: Some trees like apple in Himachal have moved several thousand feet upwards due to increase in temperature
    c. Ocean Acidification: Harming life of species living in there as well as coral bleching
    d. Species Extinction: As happened for toads in Europe where they were already living in high mountains and then had nowhere else to move
    Apart from it heat stress leading to deaths in humans, droughts, increase in pest attacks leading to more use of pesticides which ends up in food chain or in lakes leading to algal bloom etc.
    So techniques like afforestation, implementation of laws to decrease pollution, use of green fuel like from algae, jatropha etc. and increase in use of renewable sources of energy i.e. solar, wind energy is required to tackle this problems.

Women in Armed Forces

    Answer from 5th September doc GS I;
    Problems: short service, underestimation, harsh conditions (Pregnancy), Bad attitude of men, Only desk jobs etc.; but on recent air force day air force have decided to recruit women as pilots i.e. in fighter Indian air force

Problems faced by traditional art forms and their practitioners

    a.Lack of Support: No support from government to conserve or revive them
    b. Lack of Economic Benefits: Low economic benefits leading them to look for other economic avenues to earn money
    c. Communication Gap: Artists mostly know only traditional local languages as a result to pass it on they often faces communication gap
    d. Lack of Connectivity: Most of such things which are related to tribal groups which often liven in secluded far flung areas doesn’t get famous and so most don’t even get any knowledge about it
    e. Migration and It’s Side-Effects: Increasing living costs and urban aspirations for a convenient life, brings the rural population to the cities. In the process of migration, the ancient practices are either looked down upon as ‘backward’ or are forgotten.
    Suggestion:
    a. Making a place or museum where such people can come and show their original artistic style, so that same can be registered there and can be used there to create more of such artist works to sell in shops specially related to such kind of Indian traditional works only, which will not only help in saving this traditional styles but reap economic benefits as well and thirdly foreigners who always want to take something with them as souvenirs also will be interested in them.”

Implication of Environmental Levy on Commercial Vehicles

    a. Trade: Will dicourage trade
    b. Price of Commodities: Prices of commodities will go up
    c. Consumers will be Affected: In case of taxis they ultimately trasfer the toll tax and other taxes on consumers, so it is ultimately consumers who will suffer
    d. Evasion: People will try to not register their vehicles as commercial vehicle and so try to evade taxes
    e. Small Vehicles: People will move towards small vehicles as they are under low tax range and so traffic on road will increase
    Positives:
    a. More funds for creating infrastructure to decrease pollution
    b. Strict scrutiny by police to reduce chances of evasion and so vehicle older than 10 years will be detected and will not be allowed that will help in reducing pollution.

1975 Emergency: A blow to Indian Democracy

    Citizens lost their fundamental rights, restrictions imposed on press, judicial independence was curtailed and hence disturbed the powers between three organs.
    Socio-Political implications of the emergency:
    a. It brought out weakness and strengths of our constitution
    b. Ambiguities regarding emergency provisions of constitution were later on ratified by 44 constitution amendment in which the phrase internal disturbances was replaced by armed rebellion and written advice of cabinet was made necessary for proclaiming emergency
    c. People became more aware of their rights and duties
    d. Administration of police became more vulnerable to state influence.
    E) Right to life and liberty i.e. Article#21 cannot be taken under any circumstances
    F) People replied by:
    i. Electing Morarji Desai at Centre
    ii. Emergency led to new provision under which judges started appointing judges

Growing Inequality in India

    Richest 1% Indians owns 53% of country’s wealth and top 10% approximately 76.3%
    a. Reduced Potential: Some sections remained deprieved of full potential to grow and don’t get same facilities for growth and development like the rich section do
    b. Agitation: Agitation by citizen’s who remained unhappy with such sort of inequality which ultimately leads to demand for reservation accompanied by protests, bandh, strike etc. as done in Patidar community agitation
    c. Corruption: Increase in corruption by well off sections to take undue advantage in every strata of society like in politics etc.

Indian Culture Traits and Threats to it

    Different traits of Indian culture are:
    a. Pluralism: Indian people shows respect for all types of beliefs, culture, faith etc.
    b. Peaceful Existence: People of different religion, caste etc. having different culture all live together in common society
    Forces that poses threat to our culture are:
    a. Religious groups who kills attacks or kills people of other community in the name of religion as happened in recent Dadri lynching case
    b. Self superiority complex in certain section of people thinking that they are superior than other i.e. dominant caste philosophy
    c. Then groups based on language, region, caste etc. and discriminating others just because they don’t belong to their group

Poverty Estimation of India by World Bank

    “a. Overestimated Data Shown by Indian Government: WB. According to WB only 12% population of India is poor while it is estimated in between 21-29% by various committees
    b. Different Basis: WB uses PPP model and $ while calculating poverty, whereas Indian committees used consumption basket
    c. Area Demarcation: Indian committees strictly demarcated rural and urban area while WB used the single scale
    d. Different Products: Quality of products used by rural and urban people is different and so their prices, which is considered in Indian models but not in WB model
    e. Not multi-dimensional: Both haven’t took into consideration various other on-monetary indicators viz. health, education, sanitation etc.
    So, keeping the universal estimation of world bank aside we must focus on improving Indian methods because each country has different level of development, demands etc. and so we cannot suggest any one common basket of needs for them.”

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