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Sep 15 th, 2015
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GS I – September

GSI

Contents

Textile Sector

The crisis-ridden textile sector

    • being labour-intensive
    • The textile industry as a whole is reeling under high input and transaction costs.
    • The products find it hard to compete in export markets, where India-made yarn, fabrics and garments attract duties respectively at rates of 3.5, 8.5 and 14 per cent. Yet, Pakistan, Vietnam and Cambodia enjoy zero-duty access in some categories in the U.S., EU and China.
    • Cotton Corporation of India for several months sold the good-quality produce procured in Andhra Pradesh, Telangana and parts of Maharashtra at prices higher than international levels, making Indian cotton uncompetitive.
    • Each power loom provides work to about 2.5 workers. Closures all across the country could endanger livelihoods on a large scale. Conversely, a healthy textile sector could potentially create millions of jobs. That should be the target.

    Solutions

    • Direct cash subsidy benefit to farmers could help reform the sector. China has also decided to go in for direct subsidies to cotton growers, with its textile industry free to source cotton at international prices.
    • The Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme that was originally brought in by the Atal Bihari Vajpayee government and launched in 1999, is a ready framework available to the Centre to address the needs of the textile sector.
    • A comprehensive National Textile Policy must be announced at the earliest to create a level playing field with regard to tariff rates, raw material costs, cost of funding and transaction costs.
    • Should have been an ideal candidate for a push as part of the Prime Minister’s pet ‘Make in India’ initiative,

    Life expectancy

    • Overview
      Is the statistical average of how many years a person may live based on the year of his birth, demographic factors, gender etc. In India it has increased to almost 64 years for men and 68 for women, whereas the healthy life is only 56 for men and 59 for women.

    • Need for Improvement
      For many developed countries this age is even higher than India, which shows that even though we have improved but still there is a long way to go and there are chances for improvement.

    • Reason for Low Expectancy
      The main reason for illness is the addiction to alcohol cigarettes etc. or too much consumption of junk food and over diet leading to obesity which further leads to chronic heart disease, lack of exercise etc.

    • With new schemes like Indradhanush, National Health Mission etc. the life expectancy will further increase, plus awareness campaign must be launched to let people know about benefits of a healthy life style and ill effects of alcohol and cigarette consumption out of which the later leads to cancer. Weekly or monthly a marathon or yoga camp must be launched by local administrator to encourage people for a healthy life all over India.

    Mega Traffic Congestion Problem of India Cities

    • Actual Scene
      The root cause of traffic congestion problem in metro cities is the increasing number of private vehicles. People think that increasing the road infrastructure will help to avoid this problem but according to surveys it actually incentivize people to purchase cars. Even government thinks on this later problem then to find the actual solution.

    • Comparision with China
      Also this traffic congestion problem is when we have only around 30% people living in urban areas while it is 53% for China, so as government thinks of following the China model in certain development processes then the problem will exaggerate further. Also the problem caused by this traffic congestion and pollution related to it makes pedestrian to purchase their own private vehicle to avoid it in future.

    • Metro:
      One good example to avoid such congestions is metro like in Delhi and local trains in Mumbai but situation still is not under control.

    • Public Transport
      Probable solution lies in increasing the frequency and number of public transport vehicles at affordable cost.

    • Secondly, our politicians must also make to suffer the same so that they will get to know the real problem behind it and take decisions accordingly.
    • Easy Acceessibility
      Thirdly, as people use their private vehicles to reach to their office, malls, restaurants etc. so provisions must be made so that such things are available in their nearby neighbor hood at walking or cycling distance e.g. Europe where local authorities provide cycles for use at no cost. Also encouraging people to give lift to the needy to avoid extra pressure on existing roads.

    Anti Reservation Movements

      Causes

    • Main cause for increasing anti-reservation movements is the ease with which people belonging to SC, ST, OBC etc. category are getting good government jobs and admission in prestigious higher education government institutions like in IIT’s where in 2015 people who got even negative marks but belong to reserved category got admission where as a person from general category with very good marks and more capable then him left with no option.
    • Secondly, a student from reserved category can even take admission from general category seat as well where as vice-versa is not possible.
    • Thirdly, many of the people belonging to this category are very well off and no more require reservations benefits even then they are misusing it discouraging genuine and talented students who then have to opt for other jobs or they move to foreign countries for better opportunities i.e. the problem of brain-drain.
    • Fourthly, they get this reservation benefits in promotion also in some places like in MPPSEB where a person from reserved category gets promotion in 4-5 years very easily when very experienced people of over 35-40 years experience are still working in junior posts.
    • Issuenes involved in such movements
      Such anti-reservation movements must not be allowed because many a times it takes violent turns as happened in recently patel reservation demand based movement where several people even got killed. Such movement s also hamper economic activity in such regions as was done but jat and gujjar community people in UP and Rajasthan where they blocked the railway route which hampers the life of common people and is a violation of Article-21 i.e. Right to life. Also, if such demand s are met then it will in future lead to agitation by some other caste as well, hence it must be stopped.

    Demographic Transition

    • Basic Overview
      Demographic transition is a transition from high birth and death rate to low birth and death rate i.e. stable population. India is in middle of both where it has high growth rate and somewhat low death rate. So India’s population pyramid is broad at base and narrow at the top, which shows that the population of India is increasing.

    • Advantage for India
      Also, India has advantage with respect to other countries in terms of more people in the age group of 20-40 years i.e. it has more number of young people at working age group which is an advantage for India because some countries like US and UK has more number of aged population.

    • Now out of a population of over 125 crores major population belong to hindu religion around 79.8% and 16% are around muslims, with 2.3% chritians and so on. The growth rate of muslims for the decade 2001-2011 was around 24% and that for hindu religion was 16%.
    • Stages of Demographic Transition
      1: stage I- high birth rate and high death rate : slow population growth
      2: stage II- high birth rate and low death rate : very high population growth
      3: stage III- decreasing birth rate and low death rate : expanding but decreased growth of population
      4: stage IV- low birth and low death rate: stable population

    Chronic Heart Disease

    • Overview
      Chronic heart disease it the low amount of blood flow or oxygen to the heart leading to more pumping of blood by heart and subsequently heart attack later on. Chronic heart disease is on the rise in India with sometimes people of very young age of around 35-40 years also die because of it.

    • Causes
      Causes of chronic heart disease lies from physical inactivity which increases amount of HDL in our body and is good for our health, to excessive cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption to consumption of junk foods which has a lot of trans fat.

    • Actual Mechanism
      The excessive consumption of fat chokes our blood artillery and so heart has to pump blood with more and pressure and at higher rate to make enough blood available to all parts of our body. So basically the main cause of chronic heart disease lies in unbalanced modern lifestyle followed by people nowadays. This ultimately ends with heart attack and death.

    • Suggestions
      Although there are various methods available to tackle this problem like engeoplasty, artificial pacemaker etc. but after such diagnosis people don’t live their normal healthy life. So instead of going for diagnosis once people start facing some problem it is goo if they take proactive measures by limiting amount of fat in their diet and taking more protein as according a study taking vegetable protein helps in reducing the chances of chronic heart disease. Exercising daily for 30 minutes can also help reducing it.

    Main Central Thrust in Himalayas

    • Nepal Earthquake – Overview
      The Himalayan thrust case is in news recently because of devastating earthquakes experienced by Nepal in summer of this year of magnitude of around 7.8 followed by many aftershocks. This series of earthquake and aftershocks destroyed many parts of Nepal and it will take now years to build the same infrastructure that was available before earthquake.

    • Reason for Earthquake
      The reason for this thrust which causes the earthquake is the northward movement of Indian plate which is moving under the Tibetan plate, although the movement is very slow but its effects are huge. Even the Himalayas has moved few centimeters from its original position. Now as the earthquake is felt only on somewhat eastern part of Tibetan plate, researchers have opinion that a major earthquake will come in near future on the west part and so there is a need for people to remain cautious.

    • Need for Change
      Earthquake are very devastating natural calamity and so government must take steps 1st to educate people of what to do during times of earthquake, keep ready rapid action forces to take steps during such calamity to start reconstruction work, build buildings which can actually take stand during such earthquakes, more common public shelter houses for people at the time of such calamity, earthquake detection centers like one established after this event in Dehradun more number of such institutions must be there and most important is the research in this field so that people get to know about the seismic activity of the regions they are residing in and so that they can take timely action to save their life.

    Ambedkar and Ram Manohar Lohia view on Caste System

    • Ambedkar himself a dalit, believed caste system is responsible for the graded inequality in Indian society.. The Hindu society is characterized by graded occupation, child has to do what his father did and cannot choose his work as per his ability. He said in Hindu society family is not a social unit, rather varna is the social unit. This has failed to uphold equality, fraternity and liberty in the society. He believed that all men born are equal irrespective of caste and work they do.
      Ambdekar’s strategy to end caste system:

    • He wanted to end the caste system on the legal basis through constitutional framework. he emphasized on below points:
      1. All hindus should have only one sacred holy book
      2. Priesthood should either be abolished or he should not be hereditary. He should be state appointed.
      3. Shashtras should be disowned.

    • Dr Rammanohar Lohia on the other hand was a socialist, believed that caste system is directly related to division on labour. According to him Brahmins, Kshatriya and Vaishyas are not involved in any craft, hence caste system
      is found only in shudra varna only. Lohia pointed out that dalits, adivasis, women, muslims constitute the
      majority, but their representation is minimal. Caste system will be abolished when this imbalance is corrected. Thus for Lohia economic progress was key to abolish the caste system.
    • Lohia wanted to end the caste system though below means:
      1. Non violent and peaceful means of propaganda and struggle
      2. Beti and Roti relationship ( inter dining and inter caste marriages)
      3. Reservations for oppressed

    • Comparision between the two views:
      Both regarded the caste system as oppressive and exploitative system. But while Ambedkar wanted to abolish it through legal means while Lohia focused on reservations and economic development. Ambedkar wanted reforms in Hindu society whereas Lohia promoted inter dining and inter religious marriages.

    Trade Unionism in India

    • Trade unions are basically group of industrial workers came along for the fulfillment of demands for their collective interest. Initially several years back they were mainly left affiliated and it was in 2009 when all of them came along. Since then three strikes have been held in 2010, 2011 and 2013 against government policies. The causes for their strikes are:
      a. No minimum wages
      b. In some cases no assured social security
      c. Government policies against their interests
      d. Long working hours and in some cases unsafe working conditions
      e. No security of tenure

    • Real Picture
      This class basically work hard for their earnings and it is them who are actually most prone to hazards or accidents if any takes place in industry or in the work place e.g. 2014 gas leakage in Bhilai Steel plant, so government must laid emphasis on them because if they will stop working then economy will be affected directly and seriously.

    • They must get work according to their capability so that they will contribute to their maximum and acquire expertise in one field which will help them getting employment security as well as better wages. And while making any policy for them their unions must be consulted to have most pronounced impact of it, instead of forming any policy which hardly makes any impact on them or lacks implementation.

    Income Based v/s Caste Based Reservation

    • The time has changed and now there is no need for cast based reservation, instead income based reservation must be the criteria for development.
    • Issues
      Some of the classes in SCs and STs have already took its advantages and really well off then their condition few decades back and their children have all types of facilities like good education, money for tuitions etc. so their development is more or less is upto the mark i.e. which is required for proper development. In such a scenario using reservation quota by rich SC and ST people are hindering the progress of the already backward group of their caste only, so an income criteria must be there so that people no more misuse this reservation.

    • Current Agitations
      Secondly, this must be based income based because now-a-days some really well off groups also asking for reservation seeing such well off sections misusing reservation e.g. recent patel community agitation, jats and gujjaras agitation for reservation. So this caste based reservation is creating anger in people and if it is not dealt with right now, then in coming years this can take very absurd turn.

    • Like in LPG case where most of the people left subsidy for the needy ones same must be made here as well where the well off section leave it for needy ones, but again then they will compete in general category seats and as they is already a do or die situation in general category seats so they again will prefer to misuse reservation and this will remain there unless government abolish this different reservation percentage scene for different category and make one common reservation list.

    Smart City Project of India – Weak Points

    • Overview
      Recently, government announced number of cities to be included under smart city project for the betterment of the life of the people, some critics are of the opinion that nothing appears smart about them.

    • Policy Overlap
      As already there are a lot of existing schemes like Swachch Bharat Abhiyan, HRIDAY, AMRUT etc. which have more or less the same objectives of infrastructure construction and development, sanitation, waste development etc. and in such a scenario adding one more scheme is just wastage of resources with each scheme applicability remains in confusion about their powers and mandate.

    • Policy Paralysis
      Although, government thinks of developing cities on the line of western countries but is not following the technology and techniques they are currently following and even not clear about it. The whole plan is a replication of old schemes which will unnecessary pressure on existing municipal authorities.

    • Instead, of it smart city project must put its emphasis of using information technology to better control of all existing infrastructure like traffic, water supply and treatment plant, electricity etc. i.e. reducing man working hours and interaction with machine, which will also decrease time of service delivery. Installing renewable energy sources to decrease pollution, making new and effective transportation facilities like metro rail.

    UNO Effort to Resolve Indo-Pak Crisis

    • The role played by UNO and its agencies in brokering peace and resolving conflicts between India and Pakistan are
    • Indus Agreement:
      UNO along with World bank have played a very important role in resolving Indus water dispute which is valid till today

    • Against Terrorism:
      UNO has banned several terrorist organizations like Jamat ut dawa

    • Kashmir Dispute:
      Till, 1965 i.e. when Indian members haven’t boycotted, UNO passed many resolutions for the maintenance of peace in this disputed region but after it only one resolution being passed. But decision in this Kashmir issue was not in India’s favor

    • Creek line issue:
      Although for several decades Pakistan is pushing for decision on creek line issue in its favor but UNO hasn’t done it

    • Shimla agreement in 1972 the jurisdiction of UNMOGIP was curtailed as agreement provided for bilateral negotiation for resolution of disputes without any third party interference.
    • UN has also appealed to both the countries to refrain from nuclear testing and sign CTBT, NPT.
    • Although, India took this issue to UNO but it must have put it in chapter 7 where Pakistan could be considered as aggressor then in chapter 6. And after 1971 India refused the intervention of any third party in taking any decision on Kashmir issue and so UNO since then is silent on the issue, hence the last resolution was related to acceptance of cease fire by both country in 1971 war.

    World War II and It’s Impact on India

      With reference to second world war and its impact of India we can point out several things viz.

    • Too much Government Control:
      During the times of World War many of the Indian leaders were put in jail who opposed the war i.e. too much institutional control over rights of people and same can be seen even now a days as can be seen in yesterdays Manipur protest where several people get killed and trade union protest

    • Medical and Military Infrastructure:
      During war times many of the entrepreneurs earned quite well like TATAs, Birla’s etc. who supported the war by maintaining supply, many medical care facilities and military training facilities have been started to train soldiers for war of which some are still prevalent like Roorkee cant area

    • Alternate ideas of Society and corruption:
      As Britishers considered themselves superior and made appointments to many special position of people dear to them same thing is still prevalent today also although it is not done openly e.g. Vyapam scam, medical examination scam etc. where officials took money for admission.

    • Medical infrastructure:
      1. WW2 saw indian doctors and nurses in combat fields all over the world.
      2. Makeshift hospitals were created. We still have these in most villages. The primary health care centres we have in every block are similar to the makeshift camps that were created in blocks to treat world war victims.
      3. Local people served as nuses, a practice still followed in terms of ASHA activists.
      So with above examples we can say that although the way in which such things are happening in different way in today’s world but basic structure for such mal practices is still the same.

    Fund to Address Problem of Regional Disparity in India

      The issue of creation of a dedicated fund to address the problem of regional disparity came into being due to demand of Bihar for special category status like other eleven states that have this status due to their different characteristics like hilly terrain, backward population etc. Asian Development bank has this kind of fund which has several advantages viz.

    • In increases the involvement of local people in growth process, so chances of politics and corruption is less
    • It lays foremost emphasis on the maintenance of law and order in state
    • It makes investment in infrastructure development which gives long term benefits
      Seeing such benefits it is also in the interest of India to follow the same model for Bihar because

    • Bihar is facing same kinds of problem
    • Secondly it cannot be given the status of special category states because it does not fulfills the criteria for the same
    • Giving such status to it can lead to such demands by other states as well
      So because of all this reasons it is better to for some fund like this then to give it SCS. Plus making a model like this will help other states of India as well.

    Relation of Caste and Poverty in India

      Role of caste as cause and facilitator of poverty in India are:

    • Birth Based Benefits:
      It creates a divide based on birth as a result some caste remained deprived of some benefits totally like in terms of occupation

    • Reservation Policy:
      This reservation policy has also created a divide and for people who are poor even in reserved category they find it difficult to get good job due to his caste

    • Misuse of Reservation Policy:
      Misuse by certain rich category of people in reserved category affects the poor people in their caste only
      De-reservation is not an option at this stage because of

    • Prevalent Inequality:
      Still, there is a lot of inequality among people, so instead of completely abolishing reservation policy it must be made based on income criteria

    • Social Environment:
      Although, in some cases people have took its advantage but didn’t got the required conducive environment for growth so for such people reservation will be still required
      So, instead of de-reservation a more strategic approach needs to be followed where criteria apart from caste and income includes other characteristics as well like social environment, family history etc. and it’s better if during census such things will be kept in mind, so that such benefits can be targeted better for those who actually needs it.

    Oil and Gas Problem in India

      Despite discovering many new fields, India could not increase oil and gas production because India does not have required technology and licensor for the same as a result India is on the verge of selling more than 60 oil fields to private oil companies because India oil companies like ONGC and OIL are not able to extract oil from their because

    • Difficult terrain:
      Their geology i.e. present at unreachable positions

    • Less amount of reserves:
      Less amount of reserves present in it

    • No Technology:
      India has to always give contract to foreign companies for oil and gas exploration like schlumberger.

      Measures taken by government to address this problem are:

    • Auction:
      Government is auctioning such field which will bring monetary benefits to india and as production starts from this field so it will help in solving energy problem to some extent i.e. approximately 10%

    • Revenue Sharing Model:
      India has changed its old production sharing model to revenue sharing model as the former one always lead to company first takes their investment out and then revenue gets shared between the two

    • Freedom to sell:
      Government has decided that it will not put any restriction on companies to whom they can sell their oil it will solely be their own decision
      This is a good decision taken by government and if possible then some fields must be developed under joint venture model which will help in the growth of Indian companies and will be helpful for Indian economy as well.

    Urbanization, Economic Development and Smart City Initiative

      Urbanization and economic development both go hand in hand i.e. urbanization leads to better wages for same work and so enhance economic development and vice-versa i.e. economic development will bring urbanization as people will then invest more for better standard of living.
      Smart city initiative in its present form will bring economic development reason being:

    • More jobs:
      It will increase number of jobs in all 98 cities which are targeted under it

    • Increase in Property Rate:
      It will increase the rate of property in all cities as development starts

    • Reduction in Expenditure:
      Use of IT technology for various works will bring reduction of money spent on many existing services

    • Less Pollution:
      Use of sustainable technology will bring pollution down and hence government has to spend less on climate change

    • Public Utilities:
      Better public utilities and world class infrastructure will help for many years to come i.e. schools, health care facilities, public transport, water supply, sanitation etc.
      Apart, from it will be good if government starts mission like Green army as started in Maharashtra recently to take help of school students to encourage people to use public utilities, decrease pollution etc. i.e. for raising awareness among people and make it mandatory for government servants to adopt villages like Grama Jyothi yojana of Telangana so that such people can also take the benefits of smart city project.

    1965 Indo-Pakistan War and It’s Importance for India

      The 1965 war was a very decisive war for India as it changed the politics of India as well as gave a chance for Indian army to show their strength. Some of the important points that shows India’s capabilities in battle field as well as in diplomatic relations are:

    • Took a Strong Stand:
      It proved wrong the Pakistan’s thinking that hindu don’t have apetite for war

    • Captured More Territory than Pakistan:
      In the war Indian army captured almost four times more territory then Pakistan capture of India

    • Avoided Chinese Invasion:
      To avoid Chinese invasion again India asked for independent scrutiny by any neutral organization when Chinese blamed that India illegally captured some territories in Tibetan region

    • Increased Friendship Ties:
      Took help of Soviet Union and US to avoid china comes into picture as it was keen to attack India and even supporting Pakistan

    • Set a Good Example:
      It proved that India is a stable nation as it was the time when India was still under 1962 war crisis, has keen food shortage and new Prime Minister of India Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri didn’t has much experience at this position even then he served well
      All this shows that India not only showed its capability in war but at diplomatic front as well. The whole war comes out in favor of India which boosted the confidence level of Indian army and increased prestige of India’s image at world stage as well.

    Reason for Huge Oil Reserve in Middle-East

      Crude oil and natural gas are formed from organic deposits of animals and plants under high temperature and pressure under earth. Several steps includes in its formation are:

    • First organic matter i.e. animals and plants remains get buried under surface of earth under mud which subsequently changes to rock which produces pressure and its surrounding rocks gives enough heat leading to the formation of oil and gas, also the rocks must be impermeable to avoid migration of oil
      Middle east including countries like Saudi Arabia, UAE etc. has huge deposits of oil and gas because of several reasons viz.

    • Before dis-integration of Gondwanaland it was present on its northern margin and get benefitted by sea level rise which brought a lot of phytoplanktons here
    • Located at favorable location during pre-cretaceous global warming hence got enough heat for formation of oil
    • Rocks underneath are not permeable so oil and gas did not migrated to other places
    • Also sedimentation millions of years ago took place in between 30 degree north and south latitude giving it not only enough quantity of organic material but enough material for formation of rocks as well to build up pressure above it for formation of oil
      So, because of all this reasons middle-east has huge quantity of oil and gas deposits, and as Gondwanaland disintegrated so some oil sources subsequently dislocated to other regions.

    Demographic Profile of Muslims in India

      Recently, the government has released data of religious community of India according to the growth rate of muslim is still high then that of hindus. Some of the note taking examples about muslims are:

    • They are approximately 14.6% of population according to census of 2011, while hindus are approximately 79%
    • Muslim population is in majority in Jammu and Kashmir and Lakshadweep
    • They are socially and economically backward section of society
    • Most of them involved in self employed jobs and are good artisans
    • They have high fertility rate
    • Many of the muslims still like to follow their old orthodox school i.e. Madarsa which is based on religious education
    • Their growth rate for 2001-2011 was 2.46% per annum higher than that of hindus population of 1.4% approximately
      Seeing the statistics some critics are of the opinion that soon the muslims will surpass hindus population in India. But obviously that’s not going to happen because still there is difference of approximately 60 crore between the two sections. But there is no doubt that for some time the rate of growth of population of muslims will be more than that of muslims.

    Status of Wommen in Indian Armed Services

      Women in the armed forces of India has a very less percentage of around 3-5% and it is not because that they are not interested in this job as data shows that year by year since 1992 when army opened recruitment for women the ratio of available seats to number of applicants has increased drastically, but because of several challenges faced by them viz.

    • Short Service:
      They are recruited only for short service commission i.e. for 14 years and hence are not eligible for pension which requires minimum 20 years of service

    • Underestimation:
      They are often underestimated that they are not suitable for combat mission which require extreme physical training and endurance

    • Harsh Conditions:
      They are made to work even when they are pregnant

    • Attitude:
      Bad attitude of men saying that what is the purpose of selecting women when they leave job very frequently

    • Job Conditions:
      Some don’t find job interesting because most of the time they have to deal with desk jobs and that frustrated them over time
      It is high time that we must learn from other nations like Canada, Israel etc. where women are actively participating in combat missions and must not underestimate women. Also army men who have bad attitude against women in forces must also understand about the sacrifices and risk a woman is taking to become a soldier and must respect it. Also recent judgment by court will help to make their service permanent.

    Socio-Economic Benefits of Gender Parity in Workforce

      There is a wide gap between men and women in work force and recent statement of IMF chief that countries can benefit from by gender parity has made people to think about its benefits viz.

    • Empowerment:
      With increasing parity the women will become empowered and independent enough to take their own decisions

    • Discrimination:
      Wit gender parity the men will have more exposure to women and their problems, so the discrimination against women will decrease

    • Income:
      Women work force of India which is currently under employed or unemployed will be used effectively that will ultimately benefit Indian economy

    • Enhanced Production:
      As, women are more sincere so production from same resources will increase i.e. increase in productivity

    • Female Infanticide will decrease: With women having same power as that of men they can take their own independent decisions related to pregnancy and female infanticide in lure of male child will also decrease
      Taking awareness campaigns along with campaigns like “Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao” etc. will help improving gender ratio not only in work force but in every age groups. Although self help groups are there to mobilize rural women but it need revolution that will in turn can help a lot to our economy.

    Coal Sector in India

      India has a good reserve of coal but due to corruption in coal block allocations which led to the cancellation of old licenses followed by monsoon when production decreased coal sector now in the record stock for approximately 23 days but it is reeling under other problems viz.

    • Low demand:
      The thermal power plants are not in the position to acquire this coal because of past income, they are running under losses and so do not enough money to pay for coal

    • Quality:
      Although, India has enough production and in recent months import of coal also has been reduced but good quality coke required for steel plant still depends on import. The quality of coal is poor with high ash and moisture content.

    • Discoms:
      Although India has enough demand for power but due to weak infrastructure of distribution companies it is not able to supply its surplus power

    • Coking coal is very scarce.
    • Coal mining suffers from multiple obstacles like environmental clearance, tribal resistance, Left wing extremism domination etc.
    • Poor technology is causing excessive wastages.
    • Domestic demand is shrinking as their major buyers i.e. Power companies are suffering losses due to non recovery.
    • Increase in carbon cess has increased its cost.
    • With amendment to Coal act there is an oversupply of coal in the market.
    • RPO under NAPCC has further put a check on the expansion of coal market.
      Suggestions to improve condition are:

    • A nationwide good infrastructure of distribution needed for effective supply network
    • A good collection department so that bills get paid in time
    • Scrutiny to remove transmission and leakage losses
    • MoU with neighbor nations to purchase surplus power left even after fulfilling India’s domestic needs
      So following this measures India can improve from crisis to favorable position.

    Non-geographical Causes of Drought in India

      With weak monsoon this year due to somewhat el-nino impact most of the parts of country are under water stress e.g.
      – In Krishnasagar reservoir which supplies water to Bengaluru has half its required limit of water
      – Marathawad region is also under sever water stress but not because of poor monsoon but several other non-geographical resons viz.

    • Non-Planned Agriculture:
      Cooperative sectors in this region still growing a lot of sugarcane even after water stress which is a water intensive crops

    • Authoritarianism:
      Most of the cooperatives are owned by powerful politicians who are using their power to get water for their sugarcane production

    • Lack of Adequate Policy:
      These is not as such any effective policy to deal with such conditions
      Due to above three reasons it is the poor and weak people who has to suffer and as water is an important commodity for living and Right to have Adequate and safe drinking water comes under Article#21 then it is the responsibility of government to intervene at some stage to save people from it.
      Recent Maharashtra government decision to purchase sugarcane from only those farmers who are using drip irrigation and no more installation of new sugar mills in marathawad region is a good step.

    Criticism of FCRA

      With the cancellation of the registration of Greenpeace India NGOs are of the opinion that FCRA is a very vague act with many absurd powers viz.

    • Authoritarianism:
      Too much power lies in the hand of government who’s decision in the matter is final

    • No Foreign Donations:
      With cancellation of donation they cannot take benefits of foreign donations and they are of the opinion i.e. how ill they pay to their staff

    • Limit on fund withdrawal:
      Their license was suspended some six months ago since then they were allowed to withdraw only 25% of their deposit although in case of Greenpeace they crossed the limit by mis leading banks, but legally it is not allowed

    • Right to Expression: They are of the opinion that it is against the right to express freely against the things they find immoral like protest against Kudnakulam nuclear power plant which is one of the basis of their registration cancellation
      But such conditions imposed are not all in vain because:

    • Lack on accountability in functioning of NGOs as very few of them have filed returns
    • They are very potent in public opinion to one needs to ensure that dissent doesn’t culminate into incitement
    • Since these are powerful tools of development, specially in India, govt needs to ensure that they are not influenced by their parent nation/source of funds to act detrimental to national interest
    • They need to follow the law of the land
      So because of all this reasons their license got cancelled, but there are allegation on them that they transferred some crore of rupees to any international acitivist and didn’t disclosed it and even after receiving foreign aid they were of the opinion that they run using domestic contribution only shows that there are some irregularities from their part as well and must clear it before criticizing FCRA.

    India’s High Gender Gap

      Women participation rate in India, US etc. in workforce is less than 50% and there is a wide chance of improvement which will bring an increase of almost 27% in GDP of India according to INF chief. To improve their participation rate following steps must be taken viz.

    • Equality:
      Giving a girl child same rights from childhood as given to male child that will help in making her competent enough for future and she will have better chance of a getting a job

    • Respect:
      Respecting the dreams of a women if she genuinely wants to, so that she will have courage to pursue her dreams and will fight for it with more enthusiasm

    • Discrimination:
      Stopping discrimination in any form against them by punishing people indulged in it and setting an example so that they will not leave some job or don’t take it just because of insecurity

    • Counseling Centre:
      For those women who are at their late 20s or 30s to help improving their confidence that it’s not late and they can still take a job if they want to

    • For rural India where such facilities cannot be taken help of NGO will be of great help who can help them mobilize into self help groups to get some job for wages
    • Small measures like making separate toilets for women mandatory and opening creche facilities can go a long way in making the work environment more inclusive.
    • Equal remuneration act
      Apart from it use of information technology i.e. by using a mobile app specially dedicated under “Beti Bachao, beti Padhao” initiative to this purpose can help by informing women about successful women personalities, about various women movements or gathering happening in their cities can help to motivate and inspire them to do something meaningful for their country as well as for themselves.

    Gandhiji’s views on racism, casteism and imperialism.

      Gandhiji or Mohan Das Karam Chand Gandhi also called as the “Father of our Nation” gave to the world his famous style of non-violent protest i.e. satyagrah which is still prevalent. Gandhiji’s has his own views racism, casteism and imperialism some of which changed over time and some don’t viz.
      Racism And Casteism:

    • Hindu-Muslim Unity
      He was against any divide between Hindu-Muslim divide in India and Pakistan, he wanted that both of them take care of each other in both country as Muslims are in minority in India and Hindus in Pakistan, and also take care of other minorities such as Christians, Sikhs etc.

    • Against Untochability
      He was against untouchability and gave special representation to such people by calling them harijans, infact he wanted an equal society for them where they can grow and develop like any other citizen

    • On international stage he was also against Muslim-Jews divide in Palestine and wanted a free Palestine
      Imperialism:

    • In respect of imperialism he was initially not against them as he thought that they will bring sound principles of equality and development to India, but as he realized that their main purpose is exploitation of India he turned against them and became their biggest foe and gave India some very powerful methods to protest like non-violent satyagraha, non-cooperation, civil disobedience etc.
      Although in many cases his thinking is not sound which got changed over time, while in some he was way forward then any other person or nation in the world and it was because of this reason that Martin Luther King after winning equal rights for African-Americans in US said that they really got inspired from gandhiji’s methods.

    Importance of 1965 War for India

      The 1965 war came just after three years of 1962 war in which although India maintained its territory but it was still in recovering from that phase. This 1965 war is important for India because of following reasons:

    • Leadership:
      It proved that although India that time had PM with experience of several months but India is not reeling under un-effective leadership

    • Confidence:
      It brought confidence in Indian army and proved other nations wrong who though that Hindus don’t have appetite to fight

    • Friendship:
      It improved friendship ties with US and Soviet Union with whom India asked for help during war
      Causes of this war are:

    • Recovery Phase:
      India which faced war with China in 1962 is still recovering from it coupled with drought like situation means India’s economic condition was weak. Also in 1962 war India was not strong enough to win the war but it somehow managed to defend its territory which is one of the reason why Pakistan attacked on India

    • Weak Back-up:
      India didn’t had much logistic support and major oil supplying nations were also supporting Pakistan. Also India didn’t had much artillery support to continue war for long time

    • Considering Indian army weak
    • Constant encouragement to Pakistan by India’s fierce adversary at that time – China.
    • Backing of the international community including United States and United Kingdom to Pakistan – almost unconditional.
    • Inability of the UN to arrive at a stable and long term solution to the Kashmir problem pestering for two decades.
      Lessons from this war:

    • From this war India learned that it does not matter if it does not want to attack its neighborhood nations, they will do it anyway, so they must defend their own keep
    • Maintain friendly nations with every country and become self sustained in supplies it requires instead of depending on other nations in times of war.
    • India’s military preparedness was seen as backward technologically and in the coming decades modernisation was prioritized.
    • The absence of good intelligence inputs on external front resulted in the creation of RAW as separate from IB.
    • Provided India with the important lesson of solving its issues bilaterally without involving 3rd parties. Tashkent was the last time any 3rd party was involved in the solution to India’s international problems.

    Implication of Skewed Sex Ratio on Population Growth

      India, China etc. already has unfavorable sex ratio due to their preference to male child and this is affecting their economies like as said by IMF chief that having 1:1 ratio in workforce will help improving India’s GDP by 27%. This skewed sex ratio has several implications like:

    • Decreased Population Growth:
      Due to skewed population ratio the women with reproductive ability is decreasing and it affects population growth of any country

    • Ageing Population:
      Due to decrease in reproductive women population, the people in the working age section decreases and so more population will remain in ageing section

    • Decreased Economic Growth:
      As stated by IMF chief recently that having 1:1 ratio in workforce will bring better economic growth shows how it affects economic growth of a country

    • Subdued Population Growth:
      Even if it is corrected with effective measures, the population growth remains subdued below the actual potential of the population. The surplus men or women may remain marriageless. So, population can’t grow to full potential.
      This, skewed sex ratio coupled with increasing crime rate against women and discrimination worsened the situation further, and female infanticide is another reason for this skewed ratio. Although we have PCPDT act but such practices are still prevalent in lure of male child.
      Equal education, same respect and dignity for women, equal freedom for pursuing her career etc. will help improving this condition. And use of IT to raise awareness under it plus having counseling centers to boost their confidence under “Beti Bachao, Beti Pdahao” initiative will help improving the condition.

    Particularly Vulnerable tribal Groups (PVTGs) in India

      Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTG) was earlier known as Primitive Tribal groups as recommended by Dhebar Commission in 1960-61 as that group of people under tribal section who are even more deprived than others in same tribal section, it was in 2006 that PTG is changed to PVTG.
      They are more backward than the other existing population in tribal group and that’s why they are specifically known as PVTG.
      Characteristics of PVTG includes

    • Homogeneous,
    • With small population,
    • Physically isolated,
    • No written literature as such etc.
      Their social conditions include

    • Food gathering and hunting for food
    • Zero or negative population growth
    • Low level of literacy etc.
      Due to above reasons they remain backward and other reasons include bullying by dominant caste which deprives them of some specific rights for development as well.
      So such groups need special attention of government because at times of development their land is also acquired which further deteriorates their condition. So in reservation special attention must be made to such people, with action against groups who are affecting their development and a special officer with know-how of their local language must be appointed to look after them and report time to time about it to district administration authrorities.

    Preparation of National Register of Citizens in Assam

    • Overview
      National Register of Citizens has details about the citizens of our country. It was last conducted in 1951 based on census of that time. Recently, it has been started in Assam due to increase in migrants from Bangladesh and Nepal, which causes many a times violent clashes, unnecessary economic pressure on existing resources of state etc.

    • Role of Supreme Court
      There are various issues related to it like in which a case is going under Supreme Court like to include people only who are not born in India but according to rule only those who or whose ancestors are citizen of India in March 1971 are allowed to be a part of NRC.
      Another petition wants 1951 as base year instead of 1971 and time to time certain other issues arises so to make it clear it is going on under supervision of SC.

    • Repatriation Treaty
      After this NRC exercise will complete India has to send back the immigrants who are residing in Indian territory illegally to their country and for it India has to sign repatriation treaty with Bangladesh and Nepal both.

    • After Effects
      It will have positive implications for India due to decrease in communal tensions, violent clashes, decrease in economic pressure etc.
      Negative for people who will move back to their country as they will have to start their life again from scratch, exclusion and inclusion errors in updating because of doubts over the credibility of 1951 census, similar demands from other states could erupt violence etc.

    Gender Discrimination and Economic Suffering of Countries

      In some countries like India which discriminate against women and do not promote gender equality suffer economically is true as has been stated by IMF chief as well. The reasons for this low growth are:

    • Less Opportunity:
      Women has less opportunity to grow and so a major chunk of our talent pool remain unutilized

    • Economic Burden:
      It increase as they don’t contribute in the economic activities of our country

    • Crimes:
      Due to inequality the crime rate against women increases and so government have to spend tiema dn money on dealing with such measures when they can use it for other developmental purposes

    • Less Freedom:
      In matter of taking decision for their pregnancy leads to multiple children which again increases burden on family
      Women must be given same respect, freedom etc. as given to male child with motivation from family to pursue their dreams and enough opportunity by government to help their upliftment. Help of NGOs must be taken to raise awareness about such issue, plus counseling centers to give them confidence that they can pursue their dream and helping them in achieving it can help in improving the condition of this skewed ratio in India.

    Problems and Prospects of Tea Industry in India

    • Worker’s Grievances of Wages, Trade Unions and Hours of Work
      Recognized, trade unions which were active in the sector, had failed to protect their interests and were also abetting the management to move against them. The labourers complained that they were being made to toil for 12 hours a day for a meagre wage of Rs. 240 a day. They also have complaints about the basic amenities offered by the management.

    • Monsoon is not an Issue
      The sector isn’t particularly worried about an inadequate monsoon. “5-10% less rainfall is not going to affect Assam teas because by the time the monsoon sets in, the crop would already be ready for export markets

    • Decreasing Competitiveness
      Earlier, tea was included in the Vishesh Krishi Gram Udyog Yojana and enjoyed a 5% benefit across bulk and value-added teas. But under the Merchandise Exports from India Scheme, the benefit has been reduced to three% on bulk teas, which is likely to affect the competitiveness of Indian tea.

    • Sector Stats:
      SIZE OF THE INDUSTRY: 1.2 billion kg
      EXPORT: 200 million kg
      NO. OF PLANTATIONS: 1,50,000
      ORGANISED PLANTATIONS: 2,000″

    • Export Market brief overview
      Russia is India’s single largest tea importer. Turkey preferred black tea and hence Sri Lanka and India exports it to them, with the former along with Vietnam commanding a sizeable share of the market now.

    Contribution of Subhash Chandra Bose to India’s Freedom Struggle and it’s criticism

      Subhash Chandra Bose was a Civil Services officer, heada of many organizations working for freedom of India and elected twice as president of INC in late 1930s.
      His major contribution to our freedom struggle includes:

    • International Support:
      Successfully, fled from India when faced opposition inside Congress and gathered support from various international leaders and organizations to organize an army to free India. Collaborated with Soviet, Germans and Japanese (axis powers) to check the growth of British.

    • Complete Independence:
      He called for Purna Swaraj at the Lahore session of INC in contrast to the demand of dominion status by moderates.

    • Inspiration:
      Through, his thoughts and speeches motivated a large section of India

    • Indian National Army:
      Went from village to village for recruiting soldiers for Azad Hind Fauj and gave slogan to it “Tum Mujhe Khoon Do, Main Tumhe Azaadi Doonga”

    • Women Mobilization:
      Mobilized idle women sections of India and made “Rani Lakhsmi Bai” regiment under “Azad Hind Fauj”

    • Prisoners of War:
      Persuaded Japan to free Indian PoWs in their jail and use them in war against Britishers in north-east India, from where he had planned to attack
      Criticism

    • Violent Activities:
      His armed struggle against colonial government is not liked by many people of India especially supporters of Gandhiji

    • Agent of Japan:
      He was being called as agent of Japan helping it to overthrow British government from India, and his policies are called as unplanned as they have to depend on them for arms, ammunitions etc.

    Aurangzeb and his Actions

    • Brief Introduction
      Aurangzeb, the last of the main Mughal emperors, has for long been the cruel, narrow-minded, fundamentalist foil to his great-grandfather, Akbar “the Great,” who is described as liberal, ecumenical and a great empire builder.
      Negatives

    • Family:
      Aurangzeb imprisoned his father, killed his brothers,

    • Sikhs:
      Killed religiously-tolerant Dara Shikoh, executed the Sikh Guru Teg Bahadur and

    • Marathas:
      Harassed Maratha king Shivaji,

    • Against Hinduism:
      Destroyed temples and imposed the Jiziya on Hindus and even banned music from the Mughal court.

    • Economic Failure:
      The ruinous Deccan campaign was an attempt to increase the surplus of the Mughal state to accommodate the rising costs of an expanding nobility in a time of low growth. Similarly, Jiziya, war against Sikhs, Marathas, jats etc. were for economic gains only.

    • Hindutva View
      According to the Hindutva view of history, Aurangzeb is only an archetype of the Muslim ruler who oppressed Hindus over this millennium. But Aurangzeb is viewed as a “bad” Mughal even by those who do not share the Hindutva world view.
      So, he is considered as a bad ruler with no sound and good policies, who killed people of our native land for his private motives, even other countries which were captured by some foreign rulers never had any place named on them and so such action is verified.

    India’s Business Processing Outsourcing (BPO) in Healthcare Sector

      Challenges faced by India in this sector are:

    • Phillipines:
      Like it and many other low cost markets are giving tough competition to India

    • US:
      Their specialists and expertise is another factor that is hampering India’s BPO in health sector

    • International Standards:
      India lacks international standards in security and privacy which is a critical factor demanded by people in this field

    • High Cost:
      High investment requirement, inflationary pressure and fluctuating exchange rate further hampers the development in this field

    • Tax regime:
      Strict and complex tax regime of India is another problem

    • Strict IPR Rules:
      India’s patent rules are very strict as it give patents for products which are economically viable, difficult to replicate etc.

    • R&D
      Less emphasis on R&D in this field keeps the service same and cost high like old days which needs improvement

      But, as India has good prospects if it thinks carefully in this field because of following reasons:

    • Demographic Dividend
      India has a favorable demographic dividend with good knowledge and skills, but still we need further improvement to match the standards required by other countries, only then we can take its benefits

    • Low Cost
      As many cities in India still provides facilities at low cost, so medical tourism cases are increasing in India

      Improvement Required

    • Transparency
      Speedy approval required in clinical trial cases with improvement in other clearances by using IT facilities so that unnecessary delays can be avoided

    • Standard
      Improving standard of facilities, providing world class facilities for studies as well as for R&D will help in growth of our health related BPO sector.

    India and Sustainable Developmental Goals

    • Overview:
      It lists 17 goals ranging from “Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere” through “Goal 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries” to “Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development”
      Many countries, including India, made significant progress, they did not meet all the MDG targets. If the MDGs were relatively successful, it is because of the domestic efforts of a single country—China—that pulled more people out of poverty than any other.

    • India’s Case:
      Today, India is home to more than 30% of the global estimate of over 1 billion people who live in extreme poverty. Uttar Pradesh (UP)—accounts for 8% of the world’s population living in extreme poverty. If UP were to succeed, the world will be on its way to achieving SDG One.
      Challenges:

    • Size of Population:
      Big population and that too deprived and poor

    • Funds:
      Huge funds will be required for implementation mainly in R&D and creation of new jobs

    • Technology:
    • Availability of advanced technology from foreign countries in water purification, waste disposal etc.
      Solution
      SDGs can only be achieved with the help of state and local governments, industry and civil society so awareness in them is required to involve them as much as possible.
      Finally, NITI Aayog, which also has the task of monitoring progress on implementation of the SDGs, will have to innovate to keep track of all 169 targets.

      India’s Performance in Millenium Developmental Goals (MDGs)

      • Five primary goals of MDGs are:
        – Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger,
        – Achieve universal primary education,
        – Promote gender equality,
        – Reduce child mortality and
        – Improve maternal health.
        Targets achieved by India are:

      • To halve income poverty 47.8%(1990) to 20.7%(2015) with the help of schemes like NREGS
      • To halve proportion of people without safe drinking water 34% (1990) to 17% (2007-08) with the help of India’s various water related schemes viz. ADWP, NWP etc.
        Targets not achieved

      • To halve proportion of people suffering from hunger: 33% (2015_target was 26%);
        Although even after bad monsoon this year India has enough food grains in stock but it’s affordability and availability is still a problem
      • To increase share of women in wage employment: 29% (2015, target was 50%);
        This field requires more women oriented skill development program, betterment of conditions of women in terms of education, respect etc.; awareness among people to give them equal rights as that to a son

      • To reduce maternal mortality rate: 140 (2015_ target was 109),
        It requires more reach of hospitals, more number of beds, doctors, nurses etc. so this requires more investment to increase number of seats in medical institutions, use of IT for providing health services in case of emergency and in places where quality infrastructure is not present. more toilets etc.

      Problem of Bonded Labor in India

      • Brief Overview
        Bonded labor is a situation where a poor person gets caught in the vicious cycle of debt where he takes money from local money lenders under distress to meet its needs and the amount of interest charged is so high that he is not able to pay his debt and hence has to work as a labor for the lender until he pays all the debt.
        Reasons for it’s existence are:

      • Dowry and Marriage:
        Taking money for the marriage of a girl child i.e. high dowry and marriage related expenses

      • Monsoon Failure:
        As a result they have no crops to sell and so no money to meet their daily expenses

      • Crop Failure:
        Due to unseasonal rains, hailstorm etc. which destroys the crops and so again farmers get hit hard for the season affecting their economic condition

      • Lack of Loan from Banks:
        i.e. no loans from institutionalized sources like banks, another reason for it is rising NPA which discourages banks to lend money to farmers

      • Other Expenses:
        Like for medical urgency, education of a child, for agriculture inputs etc. followed by any mis-happening in cropping season causes a lot of problems
        Solution:

      • Scrutiny:
        Strict scrutiny to detect cases of dowry and taking strict actions to set examples for such people

      • Economic Help:
        Schemes from government side in case of monsoon and crop failure i.e. economic grants, plus schemes like MNREGS etc. can help and recent government decision to increase number of days under it to 150 from 100 is a good step just it reach must also be increased

      • Water Linking Project:
        Like the one started recently in A.P i.e. Pattiseema project to link Krishna-Godavari

      • Loan:
        Providing loans to farmers from banks so that they don’t have to depend private moneylenders

      • Insurance:
        Accidental and other health related insurance as done under PMJDY is another excellent step to prevent hardships faced by farmers.

      Berlin Wall destruction and it’s consequences

      • Events
      • Sinatra Doctrine:
        The ‘sinatra doctrine’ allowed more independence to the Eastern bloc countries to decide their internal affairs which led to Hungary opening its borders to Austria and many thousands fleeing the iron curtain to the west. This was significant because the movement between communist countries was allowed freely. This gave East Berliners access to Western Europe and West Berlin.

      • Decreasing Influence of Soviet Power:
        Corrosion of political power in the pro-Soviet governments in nearby Poland and Hungary.

      • Rising Awareness of People for Freedom and Better Conditions:
        Conflict between the rise of an East German resistance movement and the collapse of the ruling regime: due to mass un-employment, restriction on freedom of press, speech AND the attractiveness of the freedoms of the West Germany, both political and commercial

      • Polish Help:
        The Polish Government promises all GDR citizens who have sought refuge in the West German Embassy in Warsaw that they will not be sent back to the GDR.
        Consequences

      • Strengthening of West Germany:
        East Germany having cheap labour and non-competitive industries lead its citizens to move in other economies in search of job and strengthening of industries in west Germany as they are more competitive.

      • Change in Global Affairs:
        The fall of the Berlin Wall 25 years ago not only reunited Germany and predicted the coming collapse of the Soviet Union; it signaled a profound change in global affairs.

      • End of Cold War:
        The fall of the wall symbolizes the end of the Cold War.

      • Break of Soviet Union:
        The fall of the wall set the change in GLOBAL geopolitical order and, within two years, 11former Soviet republics claim statehood.

      Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Contribution to Indian Freedom Struggle

        Subhash Chandra Bose was a Civil Services officer, heada of many organizations working for freedom of India and elected twice as president of INC in late 1930s.
        His major contribution to our freedom struggle includes:

      • International Support:
        Successfully, fled from India when faced opposition inside Congress and gathered support from various international leaders and organizations to organize an army to free India. Collaborated with Soviet, Germans and Japanese (axis powers) to check the growth of British.

      • Complete Independence:
        He called for Purna Swaraj at the Lahore session of INC in contrast to the demand of dominion status by moderates.

      • Inspiration:
        Through his thoughts and speeches motivated a large section of India

      • Indian National Army:
        Went from village to village for recruiting soldiers for Azad Hind Fauj and gave slogan to it “Tum Mujhe Khoon Do, Main Tumhe Azaadi Doonga”

      • Women Mobilization:
        Mobilized idle women sections of India and made “Rani Lakhsmi Bai” regiment under “Azad Hind Fauj”

      • Prisoners of War:
        Persuaded Japan to free Indian PoWs in their jail and use them in war against Britishers in north-east India, from where he had planned to attack
        Criticism

      • Violent Activities:
        His armed struggle against colonial government is not liked by many people of India especially supporters of Gandhiji

      • Agent of Japan:
        He was being called as agent of Japan helping it to overthrow British government from India, and his policies are called as unplanned as they have to depend on them for arms, ammunitions etc.

      Godavari-Krishna Interlinking through Pattiseema Project

        With the inauguration of Pattiseema project which is going to link Godavari and Krishna river, the water of former will be available in water stressed regions of Rayalseema region.

      • It benefits includes:
        a. Reduction in Wastage of Water:
        Decrease in Wastage of Water which is finally ending up previously in Bay-of-Bengal through Godavari river
        b. Effective Utilization:
        Water will be used for water stressed and deficient regions for rayalseema for paddy crops
        c. Household Purpose:
        Water will be available for household people living in Guntur and Krishna districts
        d. Water in Reservoir:
        Enough water will be available in various reservoirs in that region which in the times of rainfall and excess water availability can be used for electricity generation
        Also, if water will be available in various region then fishes will also grow well and so more people will gets employment by catching and selling fish.

      • Criticism:
        a. Flood Problem:
        Critics are of the view that both of these rivers faces flood problems at some point of time, so there is no need for interlinking
        b. Fertility Problem:
        There are chances that downward lying region along Godavari river will not get enough fertile delta every year from now on and so their fertility will decrease

      India’s Contribution to World War II

      • Military
        British India sent over two and a half million volunteer shoulders to fight under British commands against the axis power. Indians fought in the European theaters of German and Italy, in African campaigns, defended the south Asian region from Japanese. A major portion of Indian soldiers even captured by Japanese army, which later was used by S.C.Bose in their war against Britisher’s in North-East India.

      • Economic
        Several Indian princely states and capitalists provided economic support to the allied campaigns.

      • Industrial
        Many Indian industries made huge profit at that time by providing support for armies like TISCO. British diverted a lot of local raw material to assist war efforts. This was the major reason behind Bengal’s famine.

      • Strategic base
        Strategic position of Orissa and Bengal and even IIT KGP was used not only by Indian and British army but by the allied countries to restrict Japan by air and naval strikes.

      • Bring Freedom for Other Nation
        India liberated British colonies like Singapore and Hong Kong after Japan’s surrender.

      • Other Workers – like Chefs, boot makers, coolies played a passive role during the war.

      Significance of Buddhist Stupas

      • Architectural Significance
        It gives an insight about the architecture of the great empires of our history and about their engineering excellency through its design, material used etc.

      • Historical Significance
        It shows the love of the people of our ancient past for architecture, it shows their values, their beliefs etc. and with very rare literary records remained available they become one of the important sources of information

      • Tourism Significance
        Such architectures have huge value and it attracts historians, anthropologists, tourists etc from all over the world, which not only improves friendship with their country but it brings economic benefits as well

      • Religious Significance
        It was Buddhism which helped a lot in improving the condition of deprived sections of society which were used to be called as untouchables, made Ashoka left violence and who later on lived a life of an ascetic so has special religious significance.

      • Friendship Ties
        As countries like China, Vietnam, Bhutan, Sri Lanka etc. also has a lot of people following Buddhist religion so it helps in maintaining a good relationship with such nations as all shares some common beliefs and values.

      Reason for Anti-reservation Movements

      • Anger:
        People are angry over the way people belonging to SC, ST category are getting easy admission at every sphere whether it is education, jobs etc.

      • Misuse of Resources:
        Many of the people belonging to so called reserved category all already very well-off and no more requires this benefit still they are misusing it

      • Politics:
        People are still using this cast agenda for their private motives i.e. to save their vote bank and not looking after the economically deprived section who must be given this benefits based on income instead of current caste based system

      • Demands by Other Sections:
        Unnecessary demands by other sections like Patel community, Jats, Gujjars etc. which are already well off and still want reservation, which is creating anger among people who are still working hard to do something meaningful out of their life and in such situation giving unnecessary benefits to one more community creates a bad example and other community in future will demand the same, so it must be ended here and now.

      Caste System in Indian Diaspora Around the World

      • Brief Overview
        Increased development, increased income and exposure to various social and cultural system do have effect on broadening human perspective related to caste system. We tend to see people living in cities and overseas disregarding caste inequalities and there is more bond of common nationality. Economic opportunities in foreign land allows breaking the caste barrier.

        Contrary to above beliefs

      • Marriage within Caste:
        Indian diaspora still look to marry within caste and endorse caste system.

      • Society organized on its Basis:
        Caste identity has been central to the ways in which Indians overseas organised their society.

      • Preachers of Caste:
        Marriages, religious sermons, charity and fundraising drives among the community are conducted by appointed preachers of the caste.

      • Dress Codes:
        Marriages very often are encouraged within the community, dress codes are adhered to, and religious institutions endorse the religiously divided caste/sect system.

      • Names:
        People change their names and surnames to get away from low-caste identity.

      Lesson’s Learned from 1965 war that Helped in 1971 war

        Lessons learnt-

      • Planned Warfare:
        With the 1965 and 1962 war India had learnt that they need always to keep ready for war, as anyone of its neighbor can attack it any time

      • Improved Capacity:
        India improved its military capacity and strength by installing new factories and recruiting more soldiers and by giving them training to deal with such situations

      • Green Revolution:
        India also adopted green revolution so that it needs not to depend on foreign countries for food in times of war as that can manipulate their decision in such crisis times

      • Better Idea of Opposition Army:
        Pakistan’s weak Naval strength exposed in 1965 , gave confidence the India, as East Pakistan supplies were based on water route mainly.

      • Confidence:
        With successful win of 1962 and 1965 war India was sure that is has both capability and leadership to deal with war

      • Friendship Ties:
        With Soviet Union helped India to build important infrastructure that is going to be needed in war and supply of other important warfare related necessities like ships, submarines etc. India successfully defeated Pakistan.
        Source:The Hindu, Business Standard, Livemint, EPW, Insightsonindia.com

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