- 1 Law and National Issues
- 2 International Affairs
- 3 India Defense
- 4 Indian Economy
- 5 Science and technology
Law and National Issues
Juvenile Justice Bill
Rajya Sabha has passed the Juvenile Justice Bill, which will replace old JJ(C&PC) Act, 2000
Under this new bill it is proposed that a Juvenile Justice Board (JJB) and Child Welfare Committees (CWC) will be constituted in each district, with it will be the responsibility of JJB to conduct a preliminary enquiry to determine where a juvenile needs to be send, CWC for care and protection of children etc.
Problem: It is against UN convention on the Rights of the Child which requires treating every child less than 18 years of age as equals.
New act tries to give justice to victims and punishment to offenders based on the gravity of offence.
But another suggestion is that apart from age his mental maturity must also be taken into account while deciding on any such case.
Government Policy on Software
Issue: Industries asking for clarification from government about whether their digital goods be taxed as a product or service, as currently their products are treated as both and hence leads to double taxation.
Secondly, these software companies are also suffering from over regulation.
Thirdly, these companies need authentication each time to process payments from their clients.
So because of all these issues government is trying to find solution to all these issues and make a national policy for the same.
Varying Adult Mortality Rate in India
Stats: India’s adult mortality rate declined from 9 to 7 between 2000-2013
– India’s CDR is 7 as against 10 of Japan, which is much more developed and health and sanitation conscious
For this reason age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) has been used which is a weighted average of age-specific mortality rates. This ASMR is 10.5 for India in 2012 (12.6 in 2000).
The reason that researchers indicated that the real reason for variation in mortality rates among various districts is different rate of occurrence of diseases like tuberculosis, vascular diseases, malaria etc.
Questions on Rajya Sabha Credibility
Critics are of the view that RS is the creation of imperialism and India now doesn’t need it. Some of event the opinion that it just delays the legislation process.
Another issue that people raises is how these un-directly elected people can have veto powers over directly elected LS members.
For this issue what suggested was to have a designated day for opposition to raise, discuss and debate issues rather than every day sessions.
Anti Defection Law
Another question is raised over need of anti-defection law which is being made to punish those MPs which either changes political party’s mid-way or disobeys whip of their party. But critics says that for a big polity like ours it is not needed.
What is Free Basics that people are supporting on Internet
Net neutrality is the notion under which service providers have to treat all traffic as equal.
Recently, Facebook has launched ‘Save Free Basics’ which is a part of its initiative internet.org, for digital equality in India.
But some are criticizing it saying that internet.org is violating net neutrality.
PM NaMo Visit to Russia
PM knows the importance of Russia for India, as it has helped India in the time when we needed it the most.
PM is going on a visit to Moscow for improving relations and defence acquisition related purpose during which stealth warships, utility copters etc. will be purchased.
Zhengzhou and It’s Importance for Silk Road Economic Belt (SREB)
SREB is a trans-Eurasia connectivity project between China and Europe, which aims to connect Europe with land corridor using rail, roads, smart cities etc.
Chengzhou being in the centre of China is important because of presence of its wide transportation avenues like rail, road, sea and air.
Madhesis just want proportional representation based on population and changes in constituency delimitation. Current, amendments according to Madhesis are just vague measures.
Why Amendment is necessary?
Amendment is necessary because only then Nepal can expect supplies of medicines, gas and fuel from India. Also, as Madhesis are people migrated from India so India is taking decisions for their improvement.
But India also cannot take this stand for a long time considering the influencing China, which is trying hard to support Nepal with supplies.
WTO Nairobi Meet
It is not considered as a setback because developmental issues of developing countries are not taken seriously.
Three issues i.e. domestic subsidy, market access and export competition highly discriminates agricultural trade.
According to World Bank export subsidy is the major irritant whose abolition alone can yield 2% theoretical gains to world agriculture.
Special Safeguard Mechanisms (SSM):
– It will help developing countries in three major areas i.e. food security, farmers livelihood and rural development in event of liberalization
– In the event of beyond a particular level import of product or fall in price, SSM enables to raise tariffs above bound rates
Special Products: Low or no tariff reductions because of their importance for food security and livelihoods
Trade Facilitation Agreement:
– It has the ability to increase global merchandise exports by up to $ 1 trillion per annum
– Developing countries like India are of the view that WTO must look after food subsidy issue first before TFA, as many people are linked to subsidy
Implications for India:
– SSM which will help in increasing duties during import surge and fall in price of farm items, – Ministerial decision on public stockholding, – Will abolish export subsidies for farm products especially from developed countries
Need for a Chief Defence Staff
Need for a CDS that can work on all spheres along like planning, training, procurement and operations
He/she will be a single point of contact for the defence minister
– India has the ability to counter China in Indian Ocean, but not along it’s continental boundary.
Suggestions: Taking advantage under ‘Make in India’ initiative to build infrastructure and manufacturing strength of India, liberalization of FDI policy in defence sector, – Allowing private firms to enter in defence manufacturing and a brand new defence procurement policy.
Mid-Year Economic Review of Macroeconomic Policy
– Exceptional public investment and private consumption, –
– Weak macroeconomic conditions, – Tight monetary policy since 2010, – Negative GDP deflator, nominal
Focus of Review: TO break era of weak demand, falling prices, high levels of debt etc.
Outcomes of Tight Monetary Policy are:
– Increase in interest costs, – Souring bank loans, – Deterioration of banks and corporate balance sheets
Falling GDP and weak consumer demand gas made recovery cycle difficult
Ways to raise public investment for improvement are:
– By rationalizing subsidies, – liquidating government holdings in SUUTI etc.
Positives of Fed Rate Hike
Divergence in monetary policy among major economies is a fact and any joint action not going to help them
– Based on past evidence, experts are of the view that India will do well under any volatility
Need of bankruptcy law for India
Urgency of this law is the result of rising NPAs and debt problems in India’s corporate sector.
– Lack of expertise in banks to assess large and complex infrastructure projects, – Political influences on lending decisions
What has happened
– Banks has become the owners of some firms with bad loans and now need to liquidate it, but as they cannot manage their operations, so they can’t do it. Therefore, there is a need for some solution for it.
Science and technology
IISc New Way to fetch Nano-Circuits on Silicon Chips
Advantages: It will be cost-effective and energy-efficient
Nano-Circuits: They are thinner than a strand of hair and are basic building blocks of electronic devices
This new technique will imprint the circuit on metal, which was earlier done on polymer.
Currently, etching electric circuits is done using two methods i.e. electron-beam lithography and photolithography